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Reactive SQL Clients

The Reactive SQL Clients have a straightforward API focusing on scalability and low-overhead. Currently, the following database servers are supported:

  • IBM Db2

  • PostgreSQL

  • MariaDB/MySQL

  • Microsoft SQL Server

  • Oracle

The Reactive SQL Client for Oracle is considered tech preview.

In tech preview mode, early feedback is requested to mature the idea. There is no guarantee of stability in the platform until the solution matures. Feedback is welcome on our mailing list or as issues in our GitHub issue tracker.

In this guide, you will learn how to implement a simple CRUD application exposing data stored in PostgreSQL over a RESTful API.

Extension and connection pool class names for each client can be found at the bottom of this document.
If you are not familiar with the Quarkus Vert.x extension, consider reading the Using Eclipse Vert.x guide first.

The application shall manage fruit entities:

src/main/java/org/acme/reactive/crud/Fruit.java
package org.acme.reactive.crud;

import io.smallrye.mutiny.Multi;
import io.smallrye.mutiny.Uni;
import io.vertx.mutiny.pgclient.PgPool;
import io.vertx.mutiny.sqlclient.Row;
import io.vertx.mutiny.sqlclient.RowSet;
import io.vertx.mutiny.sqlclient.Tuple;

public class Fruit {

    public Long id;

    public String name;

    public Fruit() {
        // default constructor.
    }

    public Fruit(String name) {
        this.name = name;
    }

    public Fruit(Long id, String name) {
        this.id = id;
        this.name = name;
    }
}

Prerequisites

To complete this guide, you need:

  • Roughly 15 minutes

  • An IDE

  • JDK 17+ installed with JAVA_HOME configured appropriately

  • Apache Maven 3.9.8

  • A working container runtime (Docker or Podman)

  • Optionally the Quarkus CLI if you want to use it

  • Optionally Mandrel or GraalVM installed and configured appropriately if you want to build a native executable (or Docker if you use a native container build)

If you start the application in dev mode, Quarkus provides you with a zero-config database out of the box.

You might also start a database up front:

docker run -it --rm=true --name quarkus_test -e POSTGRES_USER=quarkus_test -e POSTGRES_PASSWORD=quarkus_test -e POSTGRES_DB=quarkus_test -p 5432:5432 postgres:14.1

Solution

We recommend that you follow the instructions in the next sections and create the application step by step. However, you can go right to the completed example.

Clone the Git repository: git clone https://github.com/quarkusio/quarkus-quickstarts.git, or download an archive.

The solution is located in the getting-started-reactive-crud directory.

Installing

Reactive PostgreSQL Client extension

First, make sure your project has the quarkus-reactive-pg-client extension enabled. If you are creating a new project, use the following command:

CLI
quarkus create app org.acme:reactive-pg-client-quickstart \
    --extension='rest,reactive-pg-client' \
    --no-code
cd reactive-pg-client-quickstart

To create a Gradle project, add the --gradle or --gradle-kotlin-dsl option.

For more information about how to install and use the Quarkus CLI, see the Quarkus CLI guide.

Maven
mvn io.quarkus.platform:quarkus-maven-plugin:3.12.2:create \
    -DprojectGroupId=org.acme \
    -DprojectArtifactId=reactive-pg-client-quickstart \
    -Dextensions='rest,reactive-pg-client' \
    -DnoCode
cd reactive-pg-client-quickstart

To create a Gradle project, add the -DbuildTool=gradle or -DbuildTool=gradle-kotlin-dsl option.

For Windows users:

  • If using cmd, (don’t use backward slash \ and put everything on the same line)

  • If using Powershell, wrap -D parameters in double quotes e.g. "-DprojectArtifactId=reactive-pg-client-quickstart"

If you have an already created project, the reactive-pg-client extension can be added to an existing Quarkus project with the add-extension command:

CLI
quarkus extension add reactive-pg-client
Maven
./mvnw quarkus:add-extension -Dextensions='reactive-pg-client'
Gradle
./gradlew addExtension --extensions='reactive-pg-client'

Otherwise, you can manually add the dependency to your build file:

pom.xml
<dependency>
    <groupId>io.quarkus</groupId>
    <artifactId>quarkus-reactive-pg-client</artifactId>
</dependency>
build.gradle
implementation("io.quarkus:quarkus-reactive-pg-client")

Mutiny

Quarkus REST (formerly RESTEasy Reactive) includes supports for Mutiny types (e.g. Uni and Multi) out of the box.

In this guide, we will use the Mutiny API of the Reactive PostgreSQL Client. If you are not familiar with Mutiny, check Mutiny - an intuitive reactive programming library.

JSON Binding

We will expose Fruit instances over HTTP in the JSON format. Consequently, you must also add the quarkus-rest-jackson extension:

CLI
quarkus extension add rest-jackson
Maven
./mvnw quarkus:add-extension -Dextensions='rest-jackson'
Gradle
./gradlew addExtension --extensions='rest-jackson'

If you prefer not to use the command line, manually add the dependency to your build file:

pom.xml
<dependency>
    <groupId>io.quarkus</groupId>
    <artifactId>quarkus-rest-jackson</artifactId>
</dependency>
build.gradle
implementation("io.quarkus:quarkus-rest-jackson")

Of course, this is only a requirement for this guide, not any application using the Reactive PostgreSQL Client.

Configuring

The Reactive PostgreSQL Client can be configured with standard Quarkus datasource properties and a reactive URL:

src/main/resources/application.properties
quarkus.datasource.db-kind=postgresql
quarkus.datasource.username=quarkus_test
quarkus.datasource.password=quarkus_test
quarkus.datasource.reactive.url=postgresql://localhost:5432/quarkus_test

With that you can create your FruitResource skeleton and inject a io.vertx.mutiny.pgclient.PgPool instance:

src/main/java/org/acme/vertx/FruitResource.java
package org.acme.reactive.crud;

import java.net.URI;

import jakarta.ws.rs.DELETE;
import jakarta.ws.rs.GET;
import jakarta.ws.rs.POST;
import jakarta.ws.rs.PUT;
import jakarta.ws.rs.Path;
import jakarta.ws.rs.core.Response;
import jakarta.ws.rs.core.Response.ResponseBuilder;
import jakarta.ws.rs.core.Response.Status;

import io.smallrye.mutiny.Multi;
import io.smallrye.mutiny.Uni;
import io.vertx.mutiny.pgclient.PgPool;

@Path("fruits")
public class FruitResource {

    private final PgPool client;

    public FruitResource(PgPool client) {
        this.client = client;
    }
}

Database schema and seed data

Before we implement the REST endpoint and data management code, we must set up the database schema. It would also be convenient to have some data inserted up front.

For production, we would recommend to use something like the Flyway database migration tool. But for development we can simply drop and create the tables on startup, and then insert a few fruits.

/src/main/java/org/acme/reactive/crud/DBInit.java
package org.acme.reactive.crud;

import io.quarkus.runtime.StartupEvent;
import io.vertx.mutiny.pgclient.PgPool;
import org.eclipse.microprofile.config.inject.ConfigProperty;

import jakarta.enterprise.context.ApplicationScoped;
import jakarta.enterprise.event.Observes;

@ApplicationScoped
public class DBInit {

    private final PgPool client;
    private final boolean schemaCreate;

    public DBInit(PgPool client, @ConfigProperty(name = "myapp.schema.create", defaultValue = "true") boolean schemaCreate) {
        this.client = client;
        this.schemaCreate = schemaCreate;
    }

    void onStart(@Observes StartupEvent ev) {
        if (schemaCreate) {
            initdb();
        }
    }

    private void initdb() {
        // TODO
    }
}
You might override the default value of the myapp.schema.create property in the application.properties file.

Almost ready! To initialize the DB in development mode, we will use the client simple query method. It returns a Uni and thus can be composed to execute queries sequentially:

client.query("DROP TABLE IF EXISTS fruits").execute()
    .flatMap(r -> client.query("CREATE TABLE fruits (id SERIAL PRIMARY KEY, name TEXT NOT NULL)").execute())
    .flatMap(r -> client.query("INSERT INTO fruits (name) VALUES ('Kiwi')").execute())
    .flatMap(r -> client.query("INSERT INTO fruits (name) VALUES ('Durian')").execute())
    .flatMap(r -> client.query("INSERT INTO fruits (name) VALUES ('Pomelo')").execute())
    .flatMap(r -> client.query("INSERT INTO fruits (name) VALUES ('Lychee')").execute())
    .await().indefinitely();

Wondering why we must block until the latest query is completed? This code is part of a method that @Observes the StartupEvent and Quarkus invokes it synchronously. As a consequence, returning prematurely could lead to serving requests while the database is not ready yet.

That’s it! So far we have seen how to configure a pooled client and execute simple queries. We are now ready to develop the data management code and implement our RESTful endpoint.

Using

Query results traversal

In development mode, the database is set up with a few rows in the fruits table. To retrieve all the data, we will use the query method again:

/src/main/java/org/acme/reactive/crud/Fruit.java
    public static Multi<Fruit> findAll(PgPool client) {
        return client.query("SELECT id, name FROM fruits ORDER BY name ASC").execute()
                .onItem().transformToMulti(set -> Multi.createFrom().iterable(set)) (1)
                .onItem().transform(Fruit::from); (2)
    }

    private static Fruit from(Row row) {
        return new Fruit(row.getLong("id"), row.getString("name"));
    }
1 Transform the io.vertx.mutiny.sqlclient.RowSet to a Multi<Row>.
2 Convert each io.vertx.mutiny.sqlclient.Row to a Fruit.

The Fruit#from method converts a Row instance to a Fruit instance. It is extracted as a convenience for the implementation of the other data management methods.

Then, add the endpoint to get all fruits from the backend:

src/main/java/org/acme/vertx/FruitResource.java
@GET
public Multi<Fruit> get() {
    return Fruit.findAll(client);
}

Now start Quarkus in dev mode with:

CLI
quarkus dev
Maven
./mvnw quarkus:dev
Gradle
./gradlew --console=plain quarkusDev

Lastly, open your browser and navigate to http://localhost:8080/fruits, you should see:

[{"id":2,"name":"Durian"},{"id":1,"name":"Kiwi"},{"id":4,"name":"Lychee"},{"id":3,"name":"Pomelo"}]

Prepared queries

The Reactive PostgreSQL Client can also prepare queries and take parameters that are replaced in the SQL statement at execution time:

client.preparedQuery("SELECT id, name FROM fruits WHERE id = $1").execute(Tuple.of(id))
For PostgreSQL, the SQL string can refer to parameters by position, using $1, $2, …​etc. Please refer to the Database Clients details section for other databases.

Similar to the simple query method, preparedQuery returns an instance of PreparedQuery<RowSet<Row>>. Equipped with this tooling, we are able to safely use an id provided by the user to get the details of a particular fruit:

src/main/java/org/acme/vertx/Fruit.java
public static Uni<Fruit> findById(PgPool client, Long id) {
    return client.preparedQuery("SELECT id, name FROM fruits WHERE id = $1").execute(Tuple.of(id)) (1)
            .onItem().transform(RowSet::iterator) (2)
            .onItem().transform(iterator -> iterator.hasNext() ? from(iterator.next()) : null); (3)
}
1 Create a Tuple to hold the prepared query parameters.
2 Get an Iterator for the RowSet result.
3 Create a Fruit instance from the Row if an entity was found.

And in the Jakarta REST resource:

src/main/java/org/acme/vertx/FruitResource.java
@GET
@Path("{id}")
public Uni<Response> getSingle(Long id) {
    return Fruit.findById(client, id)
            .onItem().transform(fruit -> fruit != null ? Response.ok(fruit) : Response.status(Status.NOT_FOUND)) (1)
            .onItem().transform(ResponseBuilder::build); (2)
}
1 Prepare a Jakarta REST response with either the Fruit instance if found or the 404 status code.
2 Build and send the response.

The same logic applies when saving a Fruit:

src/main/java/org/acme/vertx/Fruit.java
public Uni<Long> save(PgPool client) {
    return client.preparedQuery("INSERT INTO fruits (name) VALUES ($1) RETURNING id").execute(Tuple.of(name))
            .onItem().transform(pgRowSet -> pgRowSet.iterator().next().getLong("id"));
}

And in the web resource we handle the POST request:

src/main/java/org/acme/vertx/FruitResource.java
@POST
public Uni<Response> create(Fruit fruit) {
    return fruit.save(client)
            .onItem().transform(id -> URI.create("/fruits/" + id))
            .onItem().transform(uri -> Response.created(uri).build());
}

Result metadata

A RowSet does not only hold your data in memory, it also gives you some information about the data itself, such as:

  • the number of rows affected by the query (inserted/deleted/updated/retrieved depending on the query type),

  • the column names.

Let’s use this to support removal of fruits in the database:

src/main/java/org/acme/vertx/Fruit.java
public static Uni<Boolean> delete(PgPool client, Long id) {
    return client.preparedQuery("DELETE FROM fruits WHERE id = $1").execute(Tuple.of(id))
            .onItem().transform(pgRowSet -> pgRowSet.rowCount() == 1); (1)
}
1 Inspect metadata to determine if a fruit has been actually deleted.

And to handle the HTTP DELETE method in the web resource:

src/main/java/org/acme/vertx/FruitResource.java
@DELETE
@Path("{id}")
public Uni<Response> delete(Long id) {
    return Fruit.delete(client, id)
            .onItem().transform(deleted -> deleted ? Status.NO_CONTENT : Status.NOT_FOUND)
            .onItem().transform(status -> Response.status(status).build());
}

With GET, POST and DELETE methods implemented, we can now create a minimal web page to try the RESTful application out. We will use jQuery to simplify interactions with the backend:

/src/main/resources/META-INF/resources/fruits.html
<!doctype html>
<html>
<head>
    <meta charset="utf-8"/>
    <title>Reactive REST - Quarkus</title>
    <script src="https://code.jquery.com/jquery-3.3.1.min.js"
            integrity="sha256-FgpCb/KJQlLNfOu91ta32o/NMZxltwRo8QtmkMRdAu8=" crossorigin="anonymous"></script>
    <script type="application/javascript" src="fruits.js"></script>
</head>
<body>

<h1>Fruits API Testing</h1>

<h2>All fruits</h2>
<div id="all-fruits"></div>

<h2>Create Fruit</h2>
<input id="fruit-name" type="text">
<button id="create-fruit-button" type="button">Create</button>
<div id="create-fruit"></div>

</body>
</html>
Quarkus automatically serves static resources located under the META-INF/resources directory.

In the JavaScript code, we need a function to refresh the list of fruits when:

  • the page is loaded, or

  • a fruit is added, or

  • a fruit is deleted.

/src/main/resources/META-INF/resources/fruits.js
function refresh() {
    $.get('/fruits', function (fruits) {
        var list = '';
        (fruits || []).forEach(function (fruit) { (1)
            list = list
                + '<tr>'
                + '<td>' + fruit.id + '</td>'
                + '<td>' + fruit.name + '</td>'
                + '<td><a href="#" onclick="deleteFruit(' + fruit.id + ')">Delete</a></td>'
                + '</tr>'
        });
        if (list.length > 0) {
            list = ''
                + '<table><thead><th>Id</th><th>Name</th><th></th></thead>'
                + list
                + '</table>';
        } else {
            list = "No fruits in database"
        }
        $('#all-fruits').html(list);
    });
}

function deleteFruit(id) {
    $.ajax('/fruits/' + id, {method: 'DELETE'}).then(refresh);
}

$(document).ready(function () {

    $('#create-fruit-button').click(function () {
        var fruitName = $('#fruit-name').val();
        $.post({
            url: '/fruits',
            contentType: 'application/json',
            data: JSON.stringify({name: fruitName})
        }).then(refresh);
    });

    refresh();
});
1 The fruits parameter is not defined when the database is empty.

All done! Navigate to http://localhost:8080/fruits.html and read/create/delete some fruits.

Database Clients details

Database Extension name Pool class name Placeholders

IBM Db2

quarkus-reactive-db2-client

io.vertx.mutiny.db2client.DB2Pool

?

MariaDB/MySQL

quarkus-reactive-mysql-client

io.vertx.mutiny.mysqlclient.MySQLPool

?

Microsoft SQL Server

quarkus-reactive-mssql-client

io.vertx.mutiny.mssqlclient.MSSQLPool

@p1, @p2, etc.

Oracle

quarkus-reactive-oracle-client

io.vertx.mutiny.oracleclient.OraclePool

?

PostgreSQL

quarkus-reactive-pg-client

io.vertx.mutiny.pgclient.PgPool

$1, $2, etc.

Transactions

The reactive SQL clients support transactions. A transaction is started with io.vertx.mutiny.sqlclient.SqlConnection#begin and terminated with either io.vertx.mutiny.sqlclient.Transaction#commit or io.vertx.mutiny.sqlclient.Transaction#rollback. All these operations are asynchronous:

  • connection.begin() returns a Uni<Transaction>

  • transaction.commit() and transaction.rollback() return Uni<Void>

Managing transactions in the reactive programming world can be cumbersome. Instead of writing repetitive and complex (thus error-prone!) code, you can use the io.vertx.mutiny.sqlclient.Pool#withTransaction helper method.

The following snippet shows how to run 2 insertions in the same transaction:

public static Uni<Void> insertTwoFruits(PgPool client, Fruit fruit1, Fruit fruit2) {
    return client.withTransaction(conn -> {
        Uni<RowSet<Row>> insertOne = conn.preparedQuery("INSERT INTO fruits (name) VALUES ($1) RETURNING id")
                .execute(Tuple.of(fruit1.name));
        Uni<RowSet<Row>> insertTwo = conn.preparedQuery("INSERT INTO fruits (name) VALUES ($1) RETURNING id")
                .execute(Tuple.of(fruit2.name));

        return Uni.combine().all().unis(insertOne, insertTwo)
                // Ignore the results (the two ids)
                .discardItems();
    });
}

In this example, the transaction is automatically committed on success or rolled back on failure.

You can also create dependent actions as follows:

return client.withTransaction(conn -> conn

        .preparedQuery("INSERT INTO person (firstname,lastname) VALUES ($1,$2) RETURNING id")
        .execute(Tuple.of(person.getFirstName(), person.getLastName()))

        .onItem().transformToUni(id -> conn.preparedQuery("INSERT INTO addr (person_id,addrline1) VALUES ($1,$2)")
                .execute(Tuple.of(id.iterator().next().getLong("id"), person.getLastName())))

        .onItem().ignore().andContinueWithNull());

Working with batch query results

When executing batch queries, reactive SQL clients return a RowSet that corresponds to the results of the first element in the batch. To get the results of the following batch elements, you must invoke the RowSet#next method until it returns null.

Let’s say you want to update some rows and compute the total number of affected rows. You must inspect each RowSet:

PreparedQuery<RowSet<Row>> preparedQuery = client.preparedQuery("UPDATE fruits SET name = $1 WHERE id = $2");

Uni<RowSet<Row>> rowSet = preparedQuery.executeBatch(Arrays.asList(
        Tuple.of("Orange", 1),
        Tuple.of("Pear", 2),
        Tuple.of("Apple", 3)));

Uni<Integer> totalAffected = rowSet.onItem().transform(res -> {
    int total = 0;
    do {
        total += res.rowCount(); (1)
    } while ((res = res.next()) != null); (2)
    return total;
});
1 Compute the sum of RowSet#rowCount.
2 Invoke RowSet#next until it returns null.

As another example, if you want to load all the rows you just inserted, you must concatenate the contents of each RowSet:

PreparedQuery<RowSet<Row>> preparedQuery = client.preparedQuery("INSERT INTO fruits (name) VALUES ($1) RETURNING *");

Uni<RowSet<Row>> rowSet = preparedQuery.executeBatch(Arrays.asList(
        Tuple.of("Orange"),
        Tuple.of("Pear"),
        Tuple.of("Apple")));

// Generate a Multi of RowSet items
Multi<RowSet<Row>> rowSets = rowSet.onItem().transformToMulti(res -> {
    return Multi.createFrom().generator(() -> res, (rs, emitter) -> {
        RowSet<Row> next = null;
        if (rs != null) {
            emitter.emit(rs);
            next = rs.next();
        }
        if (next == null) {
            emitter.complete();
        }
        return next;
    });
});

// Transform each RowSet into Multi of Row items and Concatenate
Multi<Row> rows = rowSets.onItem().transformToMultiAndConcatenate(Multi.createFrom()::iterable);

Multiple Datasources

The reactive SQL clients support defining several datasources.

A typical configuration with several datasources would look like:

quarkus.datasource.db-kind=postgresql (1)
quarkus.datasource.username=user-default
quarkus.datasource.password=password-default
quarkus.datasource.reactive.url=postgresql://localhost:5432/default

quarkus.datasource."additional1".db-kind=postgresql (2)
quarkus.datasource."additional1".username=user-additional1
quarkus.datasource."additional1".password=password-additional1
quarkus.datasource."additional1".reactive.url=postgresql://localhost:5432/additional1

quarkus.datasource."additional2".db-kind=mysql (3)
quarkus.datasource."additional2".username=user-additional2
quarkus.datasource."additional2".password=password-additional2
quarkus.datasource."additional2".reactive.url=mysql://localhost:3306/additional2
1 The default datasource - using PostgreSQL.
2 A named datasource called additional1 - using PostgreSQL.
3 A named datasource called additional2 - using MySQL.

You can then inject the clients as follows:

@Inject (1)
PgPool defaultClient;

@Inject
@ReactiveDataSource("additional1") (2)
PgPool additional1Client;

@Inject
@ReactiveDataSource("additional2")
MySQLPool additional2Client;
1 Injecting the client for the default datasource does not require anything special.
2 For a named datasource, you use the @ReactiveDataSource CDI qualifier with the datasource name as its value.

UNIX Domain Socket connections

The PostgreSQL and MariaDB/MySQL clients can be configured to connect to the server through a UNIX domain socket.

First make sure that native transport support is enabled.

Then configure the database connection url. This step depends on the database type.

PostgreSQL

PostgreSQL domain socket paths have the following form: <directory>/.s.PGSQL.<port>

The database connection url must be configured so that:

  • the host is the directory in the socket path

  • the port is the port in the socket path

Consider the following socket path: /var/run/postgresql/.s.PGSQL.5432.

In application.properties add:

quarkus.datasource.reactive.url=postgresql://:5432/quarkus_test?host=/var/run/postgresql

MariaDB/MySQL

The database connection url must be configured so that the host is the socket path.

Consider the following socket path: /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock.

In application.properties add:

quarkus.datasource.reactive.url=mysql:///quarkus_test?host=/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock

Load-balancing connections

The reactive PostgreSQL and MariaDB/MySQL clients support defining several connections.

A typical configuration with several connections would look like:

quarkus.datasource.reactive.url=postgresql://host1:5432/default,postgresql://host2:5432/default,postgresql://host3:5432/default

This can also be written with indexed property syntax:

quarkus.datasource.reactive.url[0]=postgresql://host1:5432/default
quarkus.datasource.reactive.url[1]=postgresql://host2:5432/default
quarkus.datasource.reactive.url[2]=postgresql://host3:5432/default

Pooled connection idle-timeout

Reactive datasources can be configured with an idle-timeout. It is the maximum time a connection remains unused in the pool before it is closed.

The idle-timeout is disabled by default.

For example, you could expire idle connections after 60 minutes:

quarkus.datasource.reactive.idle-timeout=PT60M

Pooled Connection max-lifetime

In addition to idle-timeout, reactive datasources can also be configured with a max-lifetime. It is the maximum time a connection remains in the pool before it is closed and replaced as needed. The max-lifetime allows ensuring the pool has fresh connections with up-to-date configuration.

The max-lifetime is disabled by default but is an important configuration when using a credentials provider that provides time limited credentials, like the Vault credentials provider.

For example, you could ensure connections are recycled after 60 minutes:

quarkus.datasource.reactive.max-lifetime=PT60M

Customizing pool creation

Sometimes, the database connection pool cannot be configured only by declaration.

For example, you might have to read a specific file only present in production, or retrieve configuration data from a proprietary configuration server.

In this case, you can customize pool creation by creating a class implementing an interface which depends on the target database:

Database Pool creator class name

IBM Db2

io.quarkus.reactive.db2.client.DB2PoolCreator

MariaDB/MySQL

io.quarkus.reactive.mysql.client.MySQLPoolCreator

Microsoft SQL Server

io.quarkus.reactive.mssql.client.MSSQLPoolCreator

Oracle

io.quarkus.reactive.oracle.client.OraclePoolCreator

PostgreSQL

io.quarkus.reactive.pg.client.PgPoolCreator

Here’s an example for PostgreSQL:

import jakarta.inject.Singleton;

import io.quarkus.reactive.pg.client.PgPoolCreator;
import io.vertx.pgclient.PgConnectOptions;
import io.vertx.pgclient.PgPool;
import io.vertx.sqlclient.PoolOptions;

@Singleton
public class CustomPgPoolCreator implements PgPoolCreator {

    @Override
    public PgPool create(Input input) {
        PgConnectOptions connectOptions = input.pgConnectOptions();
        PoolOptions poolOptions = input.poolOptions();
        // Customize connectOptions, poolOptions or both, as required
        return PgPool.pool(input.vertx(), connectOptions, poolOptions);
    }
}

Pipelining

The PostgreSQL and MariaDB/MySQL clients support pipelining of queries at the connection level. The feature consists in sending multiple queries on the same database connection without waiting for the corresponding responses.

In some use cases, query pipelining can improve database access performance.

Here’s an example for PostgreSQL:

import jakarta.inject.Inject;

import io.smallrye.mutiny.Uni;
import io.vertx.mutiny.pgclient.PgPool;

public class PipeliningExample {

    @Inject
    PgPool client;

    public Uni<String> favoriteFruitAndVegetable() {
        // Explicitly acquire a connection
        return client.withConnection(conn -> {
            Uni<String> favoriteFruit = conn.query("SELECT name FROM fruits WHERE preferred IS TRUE").execute()
                    .onItem().transform(rows -> rows.iterator().next().getString("name"));
            Uni<String> favoriteVegetable = conn.query("SELECT name FROM vegetables WHERE preferred IS TRUE").execute()
                    .onItem().transform(rows -> rows.iterator().next().getString("name"));
            // favoriteFruit and favoriteVegetable unis will be subscribed at the same time
            return Uni.combine().all().unis(favoriteFruit, favoriteVegetable)
                    .combinedWith(PipeliningExample::formatMessage);
        });
    }

    private static String formatMessage(String fruit, String vegetable) {
        return String.format("The favorite fruit is %s and the favorite vegetable is %s", fruit, vegetable);
    }
}

The maximum number of pipelined queries is configured with the pipelining-limit property:

# For PostgreSQL
quarkus.datasource.reactive.postgresql.pipelining-limit=256
# For MariaDB/MySQL
quarkus.datasource.reactive.mysql.pipelining-limit=256

By default, pipelining-limit is set to 256.

Configuration Reference

Common Datasource

Configuration property fixed at build time - All other configuration properties are overridable at runtime

Configuration property

Type

Default

Whether or not a health check is published in case the smallrye-health extension is present.

This is a global setting and is not specific to a datasource.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_HEALTH_ENABLED

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boolean

true

Whether or not datasource metrics are published in case a metrics extension is present.

This is a global setting and is not specific to a datasource.

This is different from the "jdbc.enable-metrics" property that needs to be set on the JDBC datasource level to enable collection of metrics for that datasource.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_METRICS_ENABLED

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boolean

false

The kind of database we will connect to (e.g. h2, postgresql…​).

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_DB_KIND

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string

The version of the database we will connect to (e.g. '10.0').

The version number set here should follow the same numbering scheme as the string returned by java.sql.DatabaseMetaData#getDatabaseProductVersion() for your database’s JDBC driver. This numbering scheme may be different from the most popular one for your database; for example Microsoft SQL Server 2016 would be version 13.

As a rule, the version set here should be as high as possible, but must be lower than or equal to the version of any database your application will connect to.

A high version will allow better performance and using more features (e.g. Hibernate ORM may generate more efficient SQL, avoid workarounds and take advantage of more database features), but if it is higher than the version of the database you want to connect to, it may lead to runtime exceptions (e.g. Hibernate ORM may generate invalid SQL that your database will reject).

Some extensions (like the Hibernate ORM extension) will try to check this version against the actual database version on startup, leading to a startup failure when the actual version is lower or simply a warning in case the database cannot be reached.

The default for this property is specific to each extension; the Hibernate ORM extension will default to the oldest version it supports.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_DB_VERSION

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string

Whether this Dev Service should start with the application in dev mode or tests.

Dev Services are enabled by default unless connection configuration (e.g. the JDBC URL or reactive client URL) is set explicitly.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_DEVSERVICES_ENABLED

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boolean

The container image name for container-based Dev Service providers.

This has no effect if the provider is not a container-based database, such as H2 or Derby.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_DEVSERVICES_IMAGE_NAME

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string

Environment variables that are passed to the container.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_DEVSERVICES_CONTAINER_ENV__ENVIRONMENT_VARIABLE_NAME_

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String

Generic properties that are passed for additional container configuration.

Properties defined here are database-specific and are interpreted specifically in each database dev service implementation.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_DEVSERVICES_CONTAINER_PROPERTIES__PROPERTY_KEY_

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String

Generic properties that are added to the database connection URL.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_DEVSERVICES_PROPERTIES__PROPERTY_KEY_

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String

Optional fixed port the dev service will listen to.

If not defined, the port will be chosen randomly.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_DEVSERVICES_PORT

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int

The container start command to use for container-based Dev Service providers.

This has no effect if the provider is not a container-based database, such as H2 or Derby.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_DEVSERVICES_COMMAND

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string

The database name to use if this Dev Service supports overriding it.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_DEVSERVICES_DB_NAME

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string

The username to use if this Dev Service supports overriding it.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_DEVSERVICES_USERNAME

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string

The password to use if this Dev Service supports overriding it.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_DEVSERVICES_PASSWORD

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string

The path to a SQL script to be loaded from the classpath and applied to the Dev Service database.

This has no effect if the provider is not a container-based database, such as H2 or Derby.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_DEVSERVICES_INIT_SCRIPT_PATH

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string

The volumes to be mapped to the container.

The map key corresponds to the host location; the map value is the container location. If the host location starts with "classpath:", the mapping loads the resource from the classpath with read-only permission.

When using a file system location, the volume will be generated with read-write permission, potentially leading to data loss or modification in your file system.

This has no effect if the provider is not a container-based database, such as H2 or Derby.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_DEVSERVICES_VOLUMES__HOST_PATH_

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String

Whether to keep Dev Service containers running after a dev mode session or test suite execution to reuse them in the next dev mode session or test suite execution.

Within a dev mode session or test suite execution, Quarkus will always reuse Dev Services as long as their configuration (username, password, environment, port bindings, …​) did not change. This feature is specifically about keeping containers running when Quarkus is not running to reuse them across runs.

This feature needs to be enabled explicitly in testcontainers.properties, may require changes to how you configure data initialization in dev mode and tests, and may leave containers running indefinitely, forcing you to stop and remove them manually. See this section of the documentation for more information.

This configuration property is set to true by default, so it is mostly useful to disable reuse, if you enabled it in testcontainers.properties but only want to use it for some of your Quarkus applications or datasources.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_DEVSERVICES_REUSE

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boolean

true

Whether this particular data source should be excluded from the health check if the general health check for data sources is enabled.

By default, the health check includes all configured data sources (if it is enabled).

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_HEALTH_EXCLUDE

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boolean

false

Whether this datasource should be active at runtime.

If the datasource is not active, it won’t start with the application, and accessing the corresponding Datasource CDI bean will fail, meaning in particular that consumers of this datasource (e.g. Hibernate ORM persistence units) will fail to start unless they are inactive too.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_ACTIVE

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boolean

true

The datasource username

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_USERNAME

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string

The datasource password

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_PASSWORD

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string

The credentials provider name

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_CREDENTIALS_PROVIDER

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string

The credentials provider bean name.

This is a bean name (as in @Named) of a bean that implements CredentialsProvider. It is used to select the credentials provider bean when multiple exist. This is unnecessary when there is only one credentials provider available.

For Vault, the credentials provider bean name is vault-credentials-provider.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_CREDENTIALS_PROVIDER_NAME

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string

Reactive Datasource

Configuration property fixed at build time - All other configuration properties are overridable at runtime

Configuration property

Type

Default

If we create a Reactive datasource for this datasource.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE

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boolean

true

Whether prepared statements should be cached on the client side.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_CACHE_PREPARED_STATEMENTS

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boolean

false

The datasource URLs.

If multiple values are set, this datasource will create a pool with a list of servers instead of a single server. The pool uses round-robin load balancing for server selection during connection establishment. Note that certain drivers might not accommodate multiple values in this context.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_URL

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list of string

The datasource pool maximum size.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_MAX_SIZE

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int

20

When a new connection object is created, the pool assigns it an event loop.

When #event-loop-size is set to a strictly positive value, the pool assigns as many event loops as specified, in a round-robin fashion. By default, the number of event loops configured or calculated by Quarkus is used. If #event-loop-size is set to zero or a negative value, the pool assigns the current event loop to the new connection.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_EVENT_LOOP_SIZE

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int

Whether all server certificates should be trusted.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_TRUST_ALL

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boolean

false

PEM Trust config is disabled by default.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_TRUST_CERTIFICATE_PEM

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boolean

false

Comma-separated list of the trust certificate files (Pem format).

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_TRUST_CERTIFICATE_PEM_CERTS

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list of string

JKS config is disabled by default.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_TRUST_CERTIFICATE_JKS

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boolean

false

Path of the key file (JKS format).

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_TRUST_CERTIFICATE_JKS_PATH

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string

Password of the key file.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_TRUST_CERTIFICATE_JKS_PASSWORD

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string

PFX config is disabled by default.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_TRUST_CERTIFICATE_PFX

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boolean

false

Path to the key file (PFX format).

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_TRUST_CERTIFICATE_PFX_PATH

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string

Password of the key.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_TRUST_CERTIFICATE_PFX_PASSWORD

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string

PEM Key/cert config is disabled by default.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_KEY_CERTIFICATE_PEM

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boolean

false

Comma-separated list of the path to the key files (Pem format).

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_KEY_CERTIFICATE_PEM_KEYS

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list of string

Comma-separated list of the path to the certificate files (Pem format).

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_KEY_CERTIFICATE_PEM_CERTS

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list of string

JKS config is disabled by default.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_KEY_CERTIFICATE_JKS

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boolean

false

Path of the key file (JKS format).

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_KEY_CERTIFICATE_JKS_PATH

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string

Password of the key file.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_KEY_CERTIFICATE_JKS_PASSWORD

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string

PFX config is disabled by default.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_KEY_CERTIFICATE_PFX

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boolean

false

Path to the key file (PFX format).

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_KEY_CERTIFICATE_PFX_PATH

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string

Password of the key.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_KEY_CERTIFICATE_PFX_PASSWORD

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string

The number of reconnection attempts when a pooled connection cannot be established on first try.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_RECONNECT_ATTEMPTS

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int

0

The interval between reconnection attempts when a pooled connection cannot be established on first try.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_RECONNECT_INTERVAL

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Duration

PT1S

The hostname verification algorithm to use in case the server’s identity should be checked. Should be HTTPS, LDAPS or NONE. NONE is the default value and disables the verification.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_HOSTNAME_VERIFICATION_ALGORITHM

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string

NONE

The maximum time a connection remains unused in the pool before it is closed.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_IDLE_TIMEOUT

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Duration

no timeout

The maximum time a connection remains in the pool, after which it will be closed upon return and replaced as necessary.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_MAX_LIFETIME

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Duration

no timeout

Set to true to share the pool among datasources. There can be multiple shared pools distinguished by name, when no specific name is set, the __vertx.DEFAULT name is used.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_SHARED

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boolean

false

Set the pool name, used when the pool is shared among datasources, otherwise ignored.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_NAME

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string

Other unspecified properties to be passed through the Reactive SQL Client directly to the database when new connections are initiated.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_ADDITIONAL_PROPERTIES__PROPERTY_KEY_

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String

Additional named datasources

Type

Default

If we create a Reactive datasource for this datasource.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE__DATASOURCE_NAME__REACTIVE

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boolean

true

Whether prepared statements should be cached on the client side.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE__DATASOURCE_NAME__REACTIVE_CACHE_PREPARED_STATEMENTS

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boolean

false

The datasource URLs.

If multiple values are set, this datasource will create a pool with a list of servers instead of a single server. The pool uses round-robin load balancing for server selection during connection establishment. Note that certain drivers might not accommodate multiple values in this context.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE__DATASOURCE_NAME__REACTIVE_URL

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list of string

The datasource pool maximum size.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE__DATASOURCE_NAME__REACTIVE_MAX_SIZE

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int

20

When a new connection object is created, the pool assigns it an event loop.

When #event-loop-size is set to a strictly positive value, the pool assigns as many event loops as specified, in a round-robin fashion. By default, the number of event loops configured or calculated by Quarkus is used. If #event-loop-size is set to zero or a negative value, the pool assigns the current event loop to the new connection.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE__DATASOURCE_NAME__REACTIVE_EVENT_LOOP_SIZE

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int

Whether all server certificates should be trusted.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE__DATASOURCE_NAME__REACTIVE_TRUST_ALL

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boolean

false

PEM Trust config is disabled by default.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE__DATASOURCE_NAME__REACTIVE_TRUST_CERTIFICATE_PEM

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boolean

false

Comma-separated list of the trust certificate files (Pem format).

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE__DATASOURCE_NAME__REACTIVE_TRUST_CERTIFICATE_PEM_CERTS

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list of string

JKS config is disabled by default.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE__DATASOURCE_NAME__REACTIVE_TRUST_CERTIFICATE_JKS

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boolean

false

Path of the key file (JKS format).

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE__DATASOURCE_NAME__REACTIVE_TRUST_CERTIFICATE_JKS_PATH

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string

Password of the key file.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE__DATASOURCE_NAME__REACTIVE_TRUST_CERTIFICATE_JKS_PASSWORD

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string

PFX config is disabled by default.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE__DATASOURCE_NAME__REACTIVE_TRUST_CERTIFICATE_PFX

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boolean

false

Path to the key file (PFX format).

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE__DATASOURCE_NAME__REACTIVE_TRUST_CERTIFICATE_PFX_PATH

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string

Password of the key.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE__DATASOURCE_NAME__REACTIVE_TRUST_CERTIFICATE_PFX_PASSWORD

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string

PEM Key/cert config is disabled by default.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE__DATASOURCE_NAME__REACTIVE_KEY_CERTIFICATE_PEM

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boolean

false

Comma-separated list of the path to the key files (Pem format).

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE__DATASOURCE_NAME__REACTIVE_KEY_CERTIFICATE_PEM_KEYS

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list of string

Comma-separated list of the path to the certificate files (Pem format).

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE__DATASOURCE_NAME__REACTIVE_KEY_CERTIFICATE_PEM_CERTS

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list of string

JKS config is disabled by default.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE__DATASOURCE_NAME__REACTIVE_KEY_CERTIFICATE_JKS

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boolean

false

Path of the key file (JKS format).

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE__DATASOURCE_NAME__REACTIVE_KEY_CERTIFICATE_JKS_PATH

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string

Password of the key file.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE__DATASOURCE_NAME__REACTIVE_KEY_CERTIFICATE_JKS_PASSWORD

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string

PFX config is disabled by default.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE__DATASOURCE_NAME__REACTIVE_KEY_CERTIFICATE_PFX

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boolean

false

Path to the key file (PFX format).

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE__DATASOURCE_NAME__REACTIVE_KEY_CERTIFICATE_PFX_PATH

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string

Password of the key.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE__DATASOURCE_NAME__REACTIVE_KEY_CERTIFICATE_PFX_PASSWORD

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string

The number of reconnection attempts when a pooled connection cannot be established on first try.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE__DATASOURCE_NAME__REACTIVE_RECONNECT_ATTEMPTS

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int

0

The interval between reconnection attempts when a pooled connection cannot be established on first try.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE__DATASOURCE_NAME__REACTIVE_RECONNECT_INTERVAL

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Duration

PT1S

The hostname verification algorithm to use in case the server’s identity should be checked. Should be HTTPS, LDAPS or NONE. NONE is the default value and disables the verification.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE__DATASOURCE_NAME__REACTIVE_HOSTNAME_VERIFICATION_ALGORITHM

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string

NONE

The maximum time a connection remains unused in the pool before it is closed.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE__DATASOURCE_NAME__REACTIVE_IDLE_TIMEOUT

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Duration

no timeout

The maximum time a connection remains in the pool, after which it will be closed upon return and replaced as necessary.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE__DATASOURCE_NAME__REACTIVE_MAX_LIFETIME

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Duration

no timeout

Set to true to share the pool among datasources. There can be multiple shared pools distinguished by name, when no specific name is set, the __vertx.DEFAULT name is used.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE__DATASOURCE_NAME__REACTIVE_SHARED

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boolean

false

Set the pool name, used when the pool is shared among datasources, otherwise ignored.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE__DATASOURCE_NAME__REACTIVE_NAME

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string

Other unspecified properties to be passed through the Reactive SQL Client directly to the database when new connections are initiated.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE__DATASOURCE_NAME__REACTIVE_ADDITIONAL_PROPERTIES__PROPERTY_KEY_

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String

About the Duration format

To write duration values, use the standard java.time.Duration format. See the Duration#parse() Java API documentation for more information.

You can also use a simplified format, starting with a number:

  • If the value is only a number, it represents time in seconds.

  • If the value is a number followed by ms, it represents time in milliseconds.

In other cases, the simplified format is translated to the java.time.Duration format for parsing:

  • If the value is a number followed by h, m, or s, it is prefixed with PT.

  • If the value is a number followed by d, it is prefixed with P.

IBM Db2

Configuration property fixed at build time - All other configuration properties are overridable at runtime

Datasources

Type

Default

Whether SSL/TLS is enabled.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_DB2_SSL

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boolean

false

MariaDB/MySQL

Configuration property fixed at build time - All other configuration properties are overridable at runtime

Additional named datasources

Type

Default

Charset for connections.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_MYSQL_CHARSET

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string

Collation for connections.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_MYSQL_COLLATION

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string

Desired security state of the connection to the server.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_MYSQL_SSL_MODE

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disabled, preferred, required, verify-ca, verify-identity

disabled

Connection timeout in seconds

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_MYSQL_CONNECTION_TIMEOUT

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int

The authentication plugin the client should use. By default, it uses the plugin name specified by the server in the initial handshake packet.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_MYSQL_AUTHENTICATION_PLUGIN

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default, mysql-clear-password, mysql-native-password, sha256-password, caching-sha2-password

default

The maximum number of inflight database commands that can be pipelined. By default, pipelining is disabled.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_MYSQL_PIPELINING_LIMIT

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int

Whether to return the number of rows matched by the WHERE clause in UPDATE statements, instead of the number of rows actually changed.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_MYSQL_USE_AFFECTED_ROWS

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boolean

false

Microsoft SQL Server

Configuration property fixed at build time - All other configuration properties are overridable at runtime

Datasources

Type

Default

The desired size (in bytes) for TDS packets.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_MSSQL_PACKET_SIZE

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int

Whether SSL/TLS is enabled.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_MSSQL_SSL

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boolean

false

Oracle

Configuration property fixed at build time - All other configuration properties are overridable at runtime

Datasources

Type

Default

PostgreSQL

Configuration property fixed at build time - All other configuration properties are overridable at runtime

Datasources

Type

Default

The maximum number of inflight database commands that can be pipelined.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_POSTGRESQL_PIPELINING_LIMIT

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int

SSL operating mode of the client.

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_POSTGRESQL_SSL_MODE

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disable, allow, prefer, require, verify-ca, verify-full

disable

Level 7 proxies can load balance queries on several connections to the actual database. When it happens, the client can be confused by the lack of session affinity and unwanted errors can happen like ERROR: unnamed prepared statement does not exist (26000). See Using a level 7 proxy

Environment variable: QUARKUS_DATASOURCE_REACTIVE_POSTGRESQL_USE_LAYER7_PROXY

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boolean

false

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