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Writing Your Own Extension

Quarkus extensions add a new developer focused behavior to the core offering, and consist of two distinct parts, buildtime augmentation and runtime container. The augmentation part is responsible for all metadata processing, such as reading annotations, XML descriptors etc. The output of this augmentation phase is recorded bytecode which is responsible for directly instantiating the relevant runtime services.

This means that metadata is only processed once at build time, which both saves on startup time, and also on memory usage as the classes etc that are used for processing are not loaded (or even present) in the runtime JVM.

This is an in-depth documentation, see the building my first extension if you need an introduction.

1. Extension philosophy

This section is a work in progress and gathers the philosophy under which extensions should be designed and written.

1.1. Why an extension framework

Quarkus’s mission is to transform your entire application including the libraries it uses, into an artifact that uses significantly less resources than traditional approaches. These can then be used to build native applications using GraalVM. To do this you need to analyze and understand the full "closed world" of the application. Without the full and complete context, the best that can be achieved is partial and limited generic support. By using the Quarkus extension approach, we can bring Java applications in line with memory footprint constrained environments like Kubernetes or cloud platforms.

The Quarkus extension framework results in significantly improved resource utilization even when GraalVM is not used (e.g. in HotSpot). Let’s list the actions an extension performs:

  • Gather build time metadata and generate code

    • This part has nothing to do with GraalVM, it is how Quarkus starts frameworks “at build time”

    • The extension framework facilitates reading metadata, scanning classes as well as generating classes as needed

    • A small part of the extension work is executed at runtime via the generated classes, while the bulk of the work is done at build time (called deployment time)

  • Enforce opinionated and sensible defaults based on the close world view of the application (e.g. an application with no @Entity does not need to start Hibernate ORM)

  • An extension hosts Substrate VM code substitution so that libraries can run on GraalVM

    • Most changes are pushed upstream to help the underlying library run on GraalVM

    • Not all changes can be pushed upstream, extensions host Substrate VM substitutions - which is a form of code patching - so that libraries can run

  • Host Substrate VM code substitution to help dead code elimination based on the application needs

    • This is application dependent and cannot really be shared in the library itself

    • For example, Quarkus optimizes the Hibernate code because it knows it only needs a specific connection pool and cache provider

  • Send metadata to GraalVM for example classes in need of reflection

    • This information is not static per library (e.g. Hibernate) but the framework has the semantic knowledge and knows which classes need to have reflection (for example @Entity classes)

1.2. Favor build time work over runtime work

As much as possible favor doing work at build time (deployment part of the extension) as opposed to let the framework do work at startup time (runtime). The more is done there, the smaller Quarkus applications using that extension will be and the faster they will load.

1.3. How to expose configuration

Quarkus simplifies the most common usages. This means that its defaults might be different from the library it integrates.

To make the simple experience easiest, unify the configuration in application.properties via SmallRye Config. Avoid library specific configuration files, or at least make them optional: e.g. persistence.xml for Hibernate ORM is optional.

Extensions should see the configuration holistically as a Quarkus application instead of focusing on the library experience. For example quarkus.database.url and friends are shared between extensions as defining a database access is a shared task (instead of a hibernate. property for example). The most useful configuration options should be exposed as quarkus.[extension]. instead of the natural namespace of the library. Less common properties can live in the library namespace.

To fully enable the close world assumptions that Quarkus can optimize best, it is better to consider configuration options as build time settled vs overridable at runtime. Of course properties like host, port, password should be overridable at runtime. But many properties like enable caching or setting the JDBC driver can safely require a rebuild of the application.

1.3.1. Static Init Config

If the extension provides additional Config Sources and if these are required during Static Init, these must be registered with StaticInitConfigBuilderBuildItem. Configuration in Static Init does not scan for additional sources to avoid double initialization at application startup time.

1.4. Expose your components via CDI

Since CDI is the central programming model when it comes to component composition, frameworks and extensions should expose their components as beans that are easily consumable by user applications. For example, Hibernate ORM exposes EntityManagerFactory and EntityManager beans, the connection pool exposes DataSource beans etc. Extensions must register these bean definitions at build time.

1.4.1. Beans backed by classes

An extension can produce an AdditionalBeanBuildItem to instruct the container to read a bean definition from a class as if it was part of the original application:

Bean Class Registered by AdditionalBeanBuildItem
@Singleton (1)
public class Echo {

   public String echo(String val) {
      return val;
1 If a bean registered by an AdditionalBeanBuildItem does not specify a scope then @Dependent is assumed.

All other beans can inject such a bean:

Bean Injecting a Bean Produced by an AdditionalBeanBuildItem
public class ExampleResource {

    Echo echo;

    public String hello(String foo) {
        return echo.echo(foo);

And vice versa - the extension bean can inject application beans and beans provided by other extensions:

Extension Bean Injection Example
public class Echo {

    DataSource dataSource;  (1)

    Instance<List<String>> listsOfStrings; (2)

1 Inject a bean provided by other extension.
2 Inject all beans matching the type List<String>.

1.4.2. Bean initialization

Some components may require additional initialization based on information collected during augmentation. The most straightforward solution is to obtain a bean instance and call a method directly from a build step. However, it is illegal to obtain a bean instance during the augmentation phase. The reason is that the CDI container is not started yet. It’s started during the Static init bootstrap phase.

BUILD_AND_RUN_TIME_FIXED and RUN_TIME config roots can be injected in any bean. RUN_TIME config roots should only be injected after the bootstrap though.

It is possible to invoke a bean method from a recorder method though. If you need to access a bean in a @Record(STATIC_INIT) build step then is must either depend on the BeanContainerBuildItem or wrap the logic in a BeanContainerListenerBuildItem. The reason is simple - we need to make sure the CDI container is fully initialized and started. However, it is safe to expect that the CDI container is fully initialized and running in a @Record(RUNTIME_INIT) build step. You can obtain a reference to the container via CDI.current() or Quarkus-specific Arc.container().

Don’t forget to make sure the bean state guarantees the visibility, e.g. via the volatile keyword.
There is one significant drawback of this "late initialization" approach. An uninitialized bean may be accessed by other extensions or application components that are instantiated during bootstrap. We’ll cover a more robust solution in the Synthetic beans.

1.4.3. Default beans

A very useful pattern of creating such beans but also giving application code the ability to easily override some beans with custom implementations, is to use the @DefaultBean that Quarkus provides. This is best explained with an example.

Let us assume that the Quarkus extension needs to provide a Tracer bean which application code is meant to inject into its own beans.

public class TracerConfiguration {

    public Tracer tracer(Reporter reporter, Configuration configuration) {
        return new Tracer(reporter, configuration);

    public Configuration configuration() {
        // create a Configuration

    public Reporter reporter(){
        // create a Reporter

If for example application code wants to use Tracer, but also needs to use a custom Reporter bean, such a requirement could easily be done using something like:

public class CustomTracerConfiguration {

    public Reporter reporter(){
        // create a custom Reporter

1.4.4. How to Override a Bean Defined by a Library/Quarkus Extension that doesn’t use @DefaultBean

Although @DefaultBean is the recommended approach, it is also possible for application code to override beans provided by an extension by marking beans as a CDI @Alternative and including @Priority annotation. Let’s show a simple example. Suppose we work on an imaginary "quarkus-parser" extension and we have a default bean implementation:

class Parser {

  String[] parse(String expression) {
    return expression.split("::");

And our extension also consumes this parser:

class ParserService {

  Parser parser;


Now, if a user or even some other extension needs to override the default implementation of the Parser the simplest solution is to use CDI @Alternative + @Priority:

@Alternative (1)
@Priority(1) (2)
class MyParser extends Parser {

  String[] parse(String expression) {
    // my super impl...
1 MyParser is an alternative bean.
2 Enables the alternative. The priority could be any number to override the default bean but if there are multiple alternatives the highest priority wins.
CDI alternatives are only considered during injection and type-safe resolution. For example the default implementation would still receive observer notifications.

1.4.5. Synthetic beans

Sometimes it is very useful to be able to register a synthetic bean. Bean attributes of a synthetic bean are not derived from a java class, method or field. Instead, the attributes are specified by an extension.

Since the CDI container does not control the instantiation of a synthetic bean the dependency injection and other services (such as interceptors) are not supported. In other words, it’s up to the extension to provide all required services to a synthetic bean instance.

There are several ways to register a synthetic bean in Quarkus. In this chapter, we will cover a use case that can be used to initialize extension beans in a safe manner (compared to Bean initialization).

The SyntheticBeanBuildItem can be used to register a synthetic bean:

  • whose instance can be easily produced through a recorder,

  • to provide a "context" bean that holds all the information collected during augmentation so that the real components do not need any "late initialization" because they can inject the context bean directly.

Instance Produced Through Recorder
SyntheticBeanBuildItem syntheticBean(TestRecorder recorder) {
   return SyntheticBeanBuildItem.configure(Foo.class).scope(Singleton.class)
                .runtimeValue(recorder.createFoo("parameters are recorder in the bytecode")) (1)
1 The string value is recorded in the bytecode and used to initialize the instance of Foo.
"Context" Holder
SyntheticBeanBuildItem syntheticBean(TestRecorder recorder) {
   return SyntheticBeanBuildItem.configure(TestContext.class).scope(Singleton.class)
                .runtimeValue(recorder.createContext("parameters are recorder in the bytecode")) (1)
1 The "real" components can inject the TestContext directly.

1.5. Some types of extensions

There exist multiple stereotypes of extension, let’s list a few.

Bare library running

This is the less sophisticated extension. It consists of a set of patches to make sure a library runs on GraalVM. If possible, contribute these patches upstream, not in extensions. Second best is to write Substrate VM substitutions, which are patches applied during native image compilation.

Get a framework running

A framework at runtime typically reads configuration, scan the classpath and classes for metadata (annotations, getters etc.), build a metamodel on top of which it runs, find options via the service loader pattern, prepare invocation calls (reflection), proxy interfaces, etc.
These operations should be done at build time and the metamodel be passed to the recorder DSL that will generate classes that will be executed at runtime and boot the framework.

Get a CDI portable extension running

The CDI portable extension model is very flexible. Too flexible to benefit from the build time boot promoted by Quarkus. Most extension we have seen do not make use of these extreme flexibility capabilities. The way to port a CDI extension to Quarkus is to rewrite it as a Quarkus extension which will define the various beans at build time (deployment time in extension parlance).

2. Technical aspect

2.1. Three Phases of Bootstrap and Quarkus Philosophy

There are three distinct bootstrap phases of a Quarkus app:


This is the first phase, and is done by the Build Step Processors. These processors have access to Jandex annotation information and can parse any descriptors and read annotations, but should not attempt to load any application classes. The output of these build steps is some recorded bytecode, using an extension of the ObjectWeb ASM project called Gizmo(ext/gizmo), that is used to actually bootstrap the application at runtime. Depending on the io.quarkus.deployment.annotations.ExecutionTime value of the @io.quarkus.deployment.annotations.Record annotation associated with the build step, the step may be run in a different JVM based on the following two modes.

Static Init

If bytecode is recorded with @Record(STATIC_INIT) then it will be executed from a static init method on the main class. For a native executable build, this code is executed in a normal JVM as part of the native build process, and any retained objects that are produced in this stage will be directly serialized into the native executable via an image mapped file. This means that if a framework can boot in this phase then it will have its booted state directly written to the image, and so the boot code does not need to be executed when the image is started.

There are some restrictions on what can be done in this stage as the Substrate VM disallows some objects in the native executable. For example you should not attempt to listen on a port or start threads in this phase. In addition, it is disallowed to read run time configuration during static initialization.

In non-native pure JVM mode, there is no real difference between Static and Runtime Init, except that Static Init is always executed first. This mode benefits from the same build phase augmentation as native mode as the descriptor parsing and annotation scanning are done at build time and any associated class/framework dependencies can be removed from the build output jar. In servers like WildFly, deployment related classes such as XML parsers hang around for the life of the application, using up valuable memory. Quarkus aims to eliminate this, so that the only classes loaded at runtime are actually used at runtime.

As an example, the only reason that a Quarkus application should load an XML parser is if the user is using XML in their application. Any XML parsing of configuration should be done in the Augmentation phase.

Runtime Init

If bytecode is recorded with @Record(RUNTIME_INIT) then it is executed from the application’s main method. This code will be run on native executable boot. In general as little code as possible should be executed in this phase, and should be restricted to code that needs to open ports etc.

Pushing as much as possible into the @Record(STATIC_INIT) phase allows for two different optimizations:

  1. In both native executable and pure JVM mode this allows the app to start as fast as possible since processing was done during build time. This also minimizes the classes/native code needed in the application to pure runtime related behaviors.

  2. Another benefit with native executable mode is that Substrate can more easily eliminate features that are not used. If features are directly initialized via bytecode, Substrate can detect that a method is never called and eliminate that method. If config is read at runtime, Substrate cannot reason about the contents of the config and so needs to keep all features in case they are required.

2.2. Project setup

Your extension project should be setup as a multi-module project with two submodules:

  1. A deployment time submodule that handles the build time processing and bytecode recording.

  2. A runtime submodule that contains the runtime behavior that will provide the extension behavior in the native executable or runtime JVM.

Your runtime artifact should depend on io.quarkus:quarkus-core, and possibly the runtime artifacts of other Quarkus modules if you want to use functionality provided by them.

Your deployment time module should depend on io.quarkus:quarkus-core-deployment, your runtime artifact, and the deployment artifacts of any other Quarkus extensions your own extension depends on. This is essential, otherwise any transitively pulled in extensions will not provide their full functionality.

The Maven and Gradle plugins will validate this for you and alert you to any deployment artifacts you might have forgotten to add.

Under no circumstances can the runtime module depend on a deployment artifact. This would result in pulling all the deployment time code into runtime scope, which defeats the purpose of having the split.

2.2.1. Using Maven

You will need to include the io.quarkus:quarkus-extension-maven-plugin and configure the maven-compiler-plugin to detect the quarkus-extension-processor annotation processor to collect and generate the necessary Quarkus extension metadata for the extension artifacts, if you are using the Quarkus parent pom it will automatically inherit the correct configuration.

You may want to use the create-extension mojo of io.quarkus.platform:quarkus-maven-plugin to create these Maven modules - see the next section.
By convention the deployment time artifact has the -deployment suffix, and the runtime artifact has no suffix (and is what the end user adds to their project).

            <!-- Executions configuration can be inherited from quarkus-build-parent -->
The above maven-compiler-plugin configuration requires version 3.5+.

You will also need to configure the maven-compiler-plugin of the deployment module to detect the quarkus-extension-processor annotation processor.


</build> Create new Quarkus Core extension modules using Maven

Quarkus provides create-extension Maven Mojo to initialize your extension project.

It will try to auto-detect its options:

  • from quarkus (Quarkus Core) or quarkus/extensions directory, it will use the 'Quarkus Core' extension layout and defaults.

  • with -DgroupId=io.quarkiverse.[extensionId], it will use the 'Quarkiverse' extension layout and defaults.

  • in other cases it will use the 'Standalone' extension layout and defaults.

  • we may introduce other layout types in the future.

You may not specify any parameter to use the interactive mode: mvn io.quarkus.platform:quarkus-maven-plugin:3.12.3:create-extension -N

As and example, let’s add a new extension called my-ext to the Quarkus source tree:

git clone https://github.com/quarkusio/quarkus.git
cd quarkus
mvn io.quarkus.platform:quarkus-maven-plugin:3.12.3:create-extension -N \
    -DextensionId=my-ext \
    -DextensionName="My Extension" \
    -DextensionDescription="Do something useful."
By default, the groupId, version, quarkusVersion, namespaceId, and namespaceName will be consistent with other Quarkus core extensions.
The extension description is important as it is displayed on https://code.quarkus.io/, when listing extensions with the Quarkus CLI, etc.

The above sequence of commands does the following:

  • Creates four new Maven modules:

    • quarkus-my-ext-parent in the extensions/my-ext directory

    • quarkus-my-ext in the extensions/my-ext/runtime directory

    • quarkus-my-ext-deployment in the extensions/my-ext/deployment directory; a basic MyExtProcessor class is generated in this module.

    • quarkus-my-ext-integration-test in the integration-tests/my-ext/deployment directory; an empty Jakarta REST Resource class and two test classes (for JVM mode and native mode) are generated in this module.

  • Links these three modules where necessary:

    • quarkus-my-ext-parent is added to the <modules> of quarkus-extensions-parent

    • quarkus-my-ext is added to the <dependencyManagement> of the Quarkus BOM (Bill of Materials) bom/application/pom.xml

    • quarkus-my-ext-deployment is added to the <dependencyManagement> of the Quarkus BOM (Bill of Materials) bom/application/pom.xml

    • quarkus-my-ext-integration-test is added to the <modules> of quarkus-integration-tests-parent

You also have to fill the quarkus-extension.yaml template file that describe your extension inside the runtime module src/main/resources/META-INF folder.

This is the quarkus-extension.yaml template of the quarkus-agroal extension, you can use it as an example:

name: "Agroal - Database connection pool" (1)
  keywords: (2)
  - "agroal"
  - "database-connection-pool"
  - "datasource"
  - "jdbc"
  guide: "https://quarkus.io/guides/datasource" (3)
  categories: (4)
  - "data"
  status: "stable" (5)
1 the name of the extension that will be displayed to users
2 keywords that can be used to find the extension in the extension catalog
3 link to the extension’s guide or documentation
4 categories under which the extension should appear on code.quarkus.io, could be omitted, in which case the extension will still be listed but not under any specific category
5 maturity status, which could be stable, preview or experimental, evaluated by extension maintainers
The name parameter of the mojo is optional. If you do not specify it on the command line, the plugin will derive it from extensionId by replacing dashes with spaces and uppercasing each token. So you may consider omitting explicit name in some cases.

Please refer to CreateExtensionMojo JavaDoc for all the available options of the mojo.

2.2.2. Using Gradle

You will need to apply the io.quarkus.extension plugin in the runtime module of your extension project. The plugin includes the extensionDescriptor task that will generate META-INF/quarkus-extension.properties and META-INF/quarkus-extension.yml files. The plugin also enables the io.quarkus:quarkus-extension-processor annotation processor in both deployment and runtime modules to collect and generate the rest of the Quarkus extension metadata. The name of the deployment module can be configured in the plugin by setting the deploymentModule property. The property is set to deployment by default:

plugins {
    id 'java'
    id 'io.quarkus.extension'

quarkusExtension {
    deploymentModule = 'deployment'

dependencies {
    implementation platform('io.quarkus:quarkus-bom:3.12.3')

2.3. Build Step Processors

Work is done at augmentation time by build steps which produce and consume build items. The build steps found in the deployment modules that correspond to the extensions in the project build are automatically wired together and executed to produce the final build artifact(s).

2.3.1. Build steps

A build step is a non-static method which is annotated with the @io.quarkus.deployment.annotations.BuildStep annotation. Each build step may consume items that are produced by earlier stages, and produce items that can be consumed by later stages. Build steps are normally only run when they produce a build item that is ultimately consumed by another step.

Build steps are normally placed on plain classes within an extension’s deployment module. The classes are automatically instantiated during the augment process and utilize injection.

2.3.2. Build items

Build items are concrete, final subclasses of the abstract io.quarkus.builder.item.BuildItem class. Each build item represents some unit of information that must be passed from one stage to another. The base BuildItem class may not itself be directly subclassed; rather, there are abstract subclasses for each of the kinds of build item subclasses that may be created: simple, multi, and empty.

Think of build items as a way for different extensions to communicate with one another. For example, a build item can:

  • expose the fact that a database configuration exists

  • consume that database configuration (e.g. a connection pool extension or an ORM extension)

  • ask an extension to do work for another extension: e.g. an extension wanting to define a new CDI bean and asking the ArC extension to do so

This is a very flexible mechanism.

BuildItem instances should be immutable, as the producer/consumer model does not allow for mutation to be correctly ordered. This is not enforced but failure to adhere to this rule can result in race conditions.
Build steps are executed if and only if they produce build items that are (transitively) needed by other build steps. Make sure your build step produces a build item, otherwise you should probably produce either ValidationErrorBuildItem for build validations, or ArtifactResultBuildItem for generated artifacts. Simple build items

Simple build items are final classes which extend io.quarkus.builder.item.SimpleBuildItem. Simple build items may only be produced by one step in a given build; if multiple steps in a build declare that they produce the same simple build item, an error is raised. Any number of build steps may consume a simple build item. A build step which consumes a simple build item will always run after the build step which produced that item.

Example of a single build item
 * The build item which represents the Jandex index of the application,
 * and would normally be used by many build steps to find usages
 * of annotations.
public final class ApplicationIndexBuildItem extends SimpleBuildItem {

    private final Index index;

    public ApplicationIndexBuildItem(Index index) {
        this.index = index;

    public Index getIndex() {
        return index;
} Multi build items

Multiple or "multi" build items are final classes which extend io.quarkus.builder.item.MultiBuildItem. Any number of multi build items of a given class may be produced by any number of steps, but any steps which consume multi build items will only run after every step which can produce them has run.

Example of a multiple build item
public final class ServiceWriterBuildItem extends MultiBuildItem {
    private final String serviceName;
    private final List<String> implementations;

    public ServiceWriterBuildItem(String serviceName, String... implementations) {
        this.serviceName = serviceName;
        // Make sure it's immutable
        this.implementations = Collections.unmodifiableList(

    public String getServiceName() {
        return serviceName;

    public List<String> getImplementations() {
        return implementations;
Example of multiple build item usage
 * This build step produces a single multi build item that declares two
 * providers of one configuration-related service.
public ServiceWriterBuildItem registerOneService() {
    return new ServiceWriterBuildItem(

 * This build step produces several multi build items that declare multiple
 * providers of multiple configuration-related services.
public void registerSeveralServices(
    BuildProducer<ServiceWriterBuildItem> providerProducer
) {
    providerProducer.produce(new ServiceWriterBuildItem(
    providerProducer.produce(new ServiceWriterBuildItem(

 * This build step aggregates all the produced service providers
 * and outputs them as resources.
public void produceServiceFiles(
    List<ServiceWriterBuildItem> items,
    BuildProducer<GeneratedResourceBuildItem> resourceProducer
) throws IOException {
    // Aggregate all the providers

    Map<String, Set<String>> map = new HashMap<>();
    for (ServiceWriterBuildItem item : items) {
        String serviceName = item.getName();
        for (String implName : item.getImplementations()) {
                (k, v) -> new LinkedHashSet<>()

    // Now produce the resource(s) for the SPI files
    for (Map.Entry<String, Set<String>> entry : map.entrySet()) {
        String serviceName = entry.getKey();
        try (ByteArrayOutputStream os = new ByteArrayOutputStream()) {
            try (OutputStreamWriter w = new OutputStreamWriter(os, StandardCharsets.UTF_8)) {
                for (String implName : entry.getValue()) {
                new GeneratedResourceBuildItem(
                    "META-INF/services/" + serviceName,
} Empty build items

Empty build items are final (usually empty) classes which extend io.quarkus.builder.item.EmptyBuildItem. They represent build items that don’t actually carry any data, and allow such items to be produced and consumed without having to instantiate empty classes. They cannot themselves be instantiated.

As they cannot be instantiated, they cannot be injected by any means, nor be returned by a build step (or via a BuildProducer). To produce an empty build item you must annotate the build step with @Produce(MyEmptyBuildItem.class) and to consume it by @Consume(MyEmptyBuildItem.class).
Example of an empty build item
public final class NativeImageBuildItem extends EmptyBuildItem {
    // empty

Empty build items can represent "barriers" which can impose ordering between steps. They can also be used in the same way that popular build systems use "pseudo-targets", which is to say that the build item can represent a conceptual goal that does not have a concrete representation.

Example of usage of an empty build item in a "pseudo-target" style
 * Contrived build step that produces the native image on disk.  The main augmentation
 * step (which is run by Maven or Gradle) would be declared to consume this empty item,
 * causing this step to be run.
void produceNativeImage() {
    // ...
    // (produce the native image)
    // ...
Example of usage of an empty build item in a "barrier" style
 * This would always run after {@link #produceNativeImage()} completes, producing
 * an instance of {@code SomeOtherBuildItem}.
SomeOtherBuildItem secondBuildStep() {
    return new SomeOtherBuildItem("foobar");
} Validation Error build items

They represent build items with validation errors that make the build fail. These build items are consumed during the initialization of the CDI container.

Example of usage of an validation error build item in a "pseudo-target" style
void checkCompatibility(Capabilities capabilities, BuildProducer<ValidationErrorBuildItem> validationErrors) {
    if (capabilities.isPresent(Capability.RESTEASY_REACTIVE)
            && capabilities.isPresent(Capability.RESTEASY)) {
        validationErrors.produce(new ValidationErrorBuildItem(
                new ConfigurationException("Cannot use both RESTEasy Classic and Reactive extensions at the same time")));
} Artifact Result build items

They represent build items containing the runnable artifact generated by the build, such as an uberjar or thin jar. These build items can also be used to always execute a build step without needing to produce anything.

Example of build step that is always executed in a "pseudo-target" style
void runBuildStepThatProducesNothing() {
    // ...

2.3.3. Injection

Classes which contain build steps support the following types of injection:

  • Constructor parameter injection

  • Field injection

  • Method parameter injection (for build step methods only)

Build step classes are instantiated and injected for each build step invocation, and are discarded afterwards. State should only be communicated between build steps by way of build items, even if the steps are on the same class.

Final fields are not considered for injection, but can be populated by way of constructor parameter injection if desired. Static fields are never considered for injection.

The types of values that can be injected include:

Objects which are injected into a build step method or its class must not be used outside that method’s execution.
Injection is resolved at compile time via an annotation processor, and the resulting code does not have permission to inject private fields or invoke private methods.

2.3.4. Producing values

A build step may produce values for subsequent steps in several possible ways:

  • By returning a simple build item or multi build item instance

  • By returning a List of a multi build item class

  • By injecting a BuildProducer of a simple or multi build item class

  • By annotating the method with @io.quarkus.deployment.annotations.Produce, giving the class name of an empty build item

If a simple build item is declared on a build step, it must be produced during that build step, otherwise an error will result. Build producers, which are injected into steps, must not be used outside that step.

Note that a @BuildStep method will only be called if it produces something that another consumer or the final output requires. If there is no consumer for a particular item then it will not be produced. What is required will depend on the final target that is being produced. For example, when running in developer mode the final output will not ask for GraalVM-specific build items such as ReflectiveClassBuildItem, so methods that only produce these items will not be invoked.

2.3.5. Consuming values

A build step may consume values from previous steps in the following ways:

  • By injecting a simple build item

  • By injecting an Optional of a simple build item class

  • By injecting a List of a multi build item class

  • By annotating the method with @io.quarkus.deployment.annotations.Consume, giving the class name of an empty build item

Normally it is an error for a step which is included to consume a simple build item that is not produced by any other step. In this way, it is guaranteed that all the declared values will be present and non-null when a step is run.

Sometimes a value isn’t necessary for the build to complete, but might inform some behavior of the build step if it is present. In this case, the value can be optionally injected.

Multi build values are always considered optional. If not present, an empty list will be injected. Weak value production

Normally a build step is included whenever it produces any build item which is in turn consumed by any other build step. In this way, only the steps necessary to produce the final artifact(s) are included, and steps which pertain to extensions which are not installed or which only produce build items which are not relevant for the given artifact type are excluded.

For cases where this is not desired behavior, the @io.quarkus.deployment.annotations.Weak annotation may be used. This annotation indicates that the build step should not automatically be included solely on the basis of producing the annotated value.

Example of producing a build item weakly
 * This build step is only run if something consumes the ExecutorClassBuildItem.
void createExecutor(
        @Weak BuildProducer<GeneratedClassBuildItem> classConsumer,
        BuildProducer<ExecutorClassBuildItem> executorClassConsumer
) {
        ClassWriter cw = new ClassWriter(Gizmo.ASM_API_VERSION);
        String className = generateClassThatCreatesExecutor(cw); (1)
        classConsumer.produce(new GeneratedClassBuildItem(true, className, cw.toByteArray()));
        executorClassConsumer.produce(new ExecutorClassBuildItem(className));
1 This method (not provided in this example) would generate the class using the ASM API.

Certain types of build items are generally always consumed, such as generated classes or resources. An extension might produce a build item along with a generated class to facilitate the usage of that build item. Such a build step would use the @Weak annotation on the generated class build item, while normally producing the other build item. If the other build item is ultimately consumed by something, then the step would run and the class would be generated. If nothing consumes the other build item, the step would not be included in the build process.

In the example above, GeneratedClassBuildItem would only be produced if ExecutorClassBuildItem is consumed by some other build step.

Note that when using bytecode recording, the implicitly generated class can be declared to be weak by using the optional attribute of the @io.quarkus.deployment.annotations.Record annotation.

Example of using a bytecode recorder where the generated class is weakly produced
 * This build step is only run if something consumes the ExecutorBuildItem.
@Record(value = ExecutionTime.RUNTIME_INIT, optional = true) (1)
ExecutorBuildItem createExecutor( (2)
        ExecutorRecorder recorder,
        ThreadPoolConfig threadPoolConfig
) {

    return new ExecutorBuildItem(
1 Note the optional attribute.
2 This example is using recorder proxies; see the section on bytecode recording for more information.

2.3.6. Application Archives

The @BuildStep annotation can also register marker files that determine which archives on the class path are considered to be 'Application Archives', and will therefore get indexed. This is done via the applicationArchiveMarkers. For example the ArC extension registers META-INF/beans.xml, which means that all archives on the class path with a beans.xml file will be indexed.

2.3.7. Using Thread’s Context Class Loader

The build step will be run with a TCCL that can load user classes from the deployment in a transformer-safe way. This class loader only lasts for the life of the augmentation, and is discarded afterwards. The classes will be loaded again in a different class loader at runtime. This means that loading a class during augmentation does not stop it from being transformed when running in the development/test mode.

2.3.8. Adding external JARs to the indexer with IndexDependencyBuildItem

The index of scanned classes will not automatically include your external class dependencies. To add dependencies, create a @BuildStep that produces IndexDependencyBuildItem objects, for a groupId and artifactId.

It is important to specify all the required artifacts to be added to the indexer. No artifacts are implicitly added transitively.

The Amazon Alexa extension adds dependent libraries from the Alexa SDK that are used in Jackson JSON transformations, in order for the reflective classes to identified and included at BUILD_TIME.

    void addDependencies(BuildProducer<IndexDependencyBuildItem> indexDependency) {
        indexDependency.produce(new IndexDependencyBuildItem("com.amazon.alexa", "ask-sdk"));
        indexDependency.produce(new IndexDependencyBuildItem("com.amazon.alexa", "ask-sdk-runtime"));
        indexDependency.produce(new IndexDependencyBuildItem("com.amazon.alexa", "ask-sdk-model"));
        indexDependency.produce(new IndexDependencyBuildItem("com.amazon.alexa", "ask-sdk-lambda-support"));
        indexDependency.produce(new IndexDependencyBuildItem("com.amazon.alexa", "ask-sdk-servlet-support"));
        indexDependency.produce(new IndexDependencyBuildItem("com.amazon.alexa", "ask-sdk-dynamodb-persistence-adapter"));
        indexDependency.produce(new IndexDependencyBuildItem("com.amazon.alexa", "ask-sdk-apache-client"));
        indexDependency.produce(new IndexDependencyBuildItem("com.amazon.alexa", "ask-sdk-model-runtime"));

With the artifacts added to the Jandex indexer, you can now search the index to identify classes implementing an interface, subclasses of a specific class, or classes with a target annotation.

For example, the Jackson extension uses code like below to search for annotations used in JSON deserialization, and add them to the reflective hierarchy for BUILD_TIME analysis.

    DotName JSON_DESERIALIZE = DotName.createSimple(JsonDeserialize.class.getName());

    IndexView index = combinedIndexBuildItem.getIndex();

    // handle the various @JsonDeserialize cases
    for (AnnotationInstance deserializeInstance : index.getAnnotations(JSON_DESERIALIZE)) {
        AnnotationTarget annotationTarget = deserializeInstance.target();
        if (CLASS.equals(annotationTarget.kind())) {
            DotName dotName = annotationTarget.asClass().name();
            Type jandexType = Type.create(dotName, Type.Kind.CLASS);
            reflectiveHierarchyClass.produce(new ReflectiveHierarchyBuildItem(jandexType));


2.3.9. Visualizing build step dependencies

It can occasionally be useful to see a visual representation of the interactions between the various build steps. For such cases, adding -Dquarkus.builder.graph-output=build.dot when building an application will result in the creation of the build.dot file in the project’s root directory. See this for a list of software that can open the file and show the actual visual representation.

2.4. Configuration

Configuration in Quarkus is based on SmallRye Config. All features provided by SmallRye Config are also available in Quarkus.

Extensions must use SmallRye Config @ConfigMapping to map the configuration required by the Extension. This will allow Quarkus to automatically expose an instance of the mapping to each configuration phase and generate the configuration documentation.

2.4.1. Config Phases

Configuration mappings are strictly bound by configuration phase, and attempting to access a configuration mapping from outside its corresponding phase will result in an error. They dictate when its contained keys are read from the configuration, and when they are available to applications. The phases defined by io.quarkus.runtime.annotations.ConfigPhase are as follows:

Phase name Read & avail. at build time Avail. at run time Read during static init Re-read during startup (native executable) Notes


Appropriate for things which affect build.


Appropriate for things which affect build and must be visible for run time code. Not read from config at run time.


Used when runtime configuration needs to be obtained from an external system (like Consul), but details of that system need to be configurable (for example Consul’s URL). The high level way this works is by using the standard Quarkus config sources (such as properties files, system properties, etc.) and producing ConfigSourceProvider objects which are subsequently taken into account by Quarkus when creating the final runtime Config object.


Not available at build, read at start in all modes.

For all cases other than the BUILD_TIME case, the configuration mapping interface and all the configuration groups and types contained therein must be located in, or reachable from, the extension’s run time artifact. Configuration mappings of phase BUILD_TIME may be located in or reachable from either of the extension’s run time or deployment artifacts.

Bootstrap configuration steps are executed during runtime-init before any of other runtime steps. This means that code executed as part of this step cannot access anything that gets initialized in runtime init steps (runtime synthetic CDI beans being one such example).

2.4.2. Configuration Example

import io.quarkus.runtime.annotations.ConfigPhase;
import io.quarkus.runtime.annotations.ConfigRoot;
import io.smallrye.config.ConfigMapping;
import io.smallrye.config.WithDefault;

import java.io.File;
import java.util.logging.Level;

 * Logging configuration.
@ConfigMapping(prefix = "quarkus.log")      (1)
@ConfigRoot(phase = ConfigPhase.RUN_TIME)   (2)
public interface LogConfiguration {
    // ...

     * Configuration properties for the logging file handler.
    FileConfig file();

    interface FileConfig {
         * Enable logging to a file.
        boolean enable();

         * The log format.
        @WithDefault("%d{yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss,SSS} %h %N[%i] %-5p [%c{1.}] (%t) %s%e%n")
        String format();

         * The level of logs to be written into the file.
        Level level();

         * The name of the file in which logs will be written.
        File path();
public class LoggingProcessor {
    // ...

     * Logging configuration.
    LogConfiguration config; (3)

A configuration property name can be split into segments. For example, a property name like quarkus.log.file.enable can be split into the following segments:

  • quarkus - a namespace claimed by Quarkus which is a prefix for @ConfigMapping interfaces,

  • log - a name segment which corresponds to the prefix set in the interface annotated with @ConfigMapping,

  • file - a name segment which corresponds to the file field in this class,

  • enable - a name segment which corresponds to enable field in FileConfig.

1 The @ConfigMapping annotation indicates that the interface is a configuration mapping, in this case one which corresponds to a quarkus.log segment.
2 The @ConfigRoot annotation indicated to which Config phase, the configuration applies to.
3 Here the LoggingProcessor injects a LogConfiguration instance automatically by detecting the @ConfigRoot annotation.

A corresponding application.properties for the above example could be:


Since format is not defined in these properties, the default value from @WithDefault will be used instead.

A configuration mapping name can contain an extra suffix segment for the case where there are configuration mappings for multiple Config Phases. Classes which correspond to the BUILD_TIME and BUILD_AND_RUN_TIME_FIXED may end with BuildTimeConfig or BuildTimeConfiguration, classes which correspond to the RUN_TIME phase may end with RuntimeConfig, RunTimeConfig, RuntimeConfiguration or RunTimeConfiguration while classes which correspond to the BOOTSTRAP configuration may end with BootstrapConfig or BootstrapConfiguration.

2.4.3. Configuration Reference Documentation

The configuration is an important part of each extension and therefore needs to be properly documented. Each configuration property should have a proper Javadoc comment.

While it is handy to have the documentation available when coding, the configuration documentation must also be available in the extension guides. The Quarkus build automatically generates the configuration documentation based on the Javadoc comments, but it needs to be explicitly included in each guide. Writing the documentation

Each configuration property, requires a Javadoc explaining its purpose.

The first sentence should be meaningful and self-contained as it is included in the summary table.

While standard Javadoc comments are perfectly fine for simple documentation (recommended even), AsciiDoc is more suitable for tips, source code extracts, lists and more:

 * Class name of the Hibernate ORM dialect. The complete list of bundled dialects is available in the
 * https://docs.jboss.org/hibernate/stable/orm/javadocs/org/hibernate/dialect/package-summary.html[Hibernate ORM JavaDoc].
 * [NOTE]
 * ====
 * Not all the dialects are supported in GraalVM native executables: we currently provide driver extensions for
 * PostgreSQL, MariaDB, Microsoft SQL Server and H2.
 * ====
 * @asciidoclet
Optional<String> dialect();

To use AsciiDoc, the Javadoc comment must be annotated with @asciidoclet tag. This tag serves two purposes: it is used as a marker for Quarkus generation tool, but it is also used by the javadoc process for the Javadoc generation.

A more detailed example:

// @formatter:off
 * Name of the file containing the SQL statements to execute when Hibernate ORM starts.
 * Its default value differs depending on the Quarkus launch mode:
 * * In dev and test modes, it defaults to `import.sql`.
 *   Simply add an `import.sql` file in the root of your resources directory
 *   and it will be picked up without having to set this property.
 *   Pass `no-file` to force Hibernate ORM to ignore the SQL import file.
 * * In production mode, it defaults to `no-file`.
 *   It means Hibernate ORM won't try to execute any SQL import file by default.
 *   Pass an explicit value to force Hibernate ORM to execute the SQL import file.
 * If you need different SQL statements between dev mode, test (`@QuarkusTest`) and in production, use Quarkus
 * https://quarkus.io/guides/config#configuration-profiles[configuration profiles facility].
 * [source,property]
 * .application.properties
 * ----
 * %dev.quarkus.hibernate-orm.sql-load-script = import-dev.sql
 * %test.quarkus.hibernate-orm.sql-load-script = import-test.sql
 * %prod.quarkus.hibernate-orm.sql-load-script = no-file
 * ----
 * [NOTE]
 * ====
 * Quarkus supports `.sql` file with SQL statements or comments spread over multiple lines.
 * Each SQL statement must be terminated by a semicolon.
 * ====
 * @asciidoclet
// @formatter:on
Optional<String> sqlLoadScript();

For indentation to be respected in the Javadoc comment (list items spread on multiple lines or indented source code), the automatic Eclipse formatter must be disabled (the formatter is automatically included in the build), with the markers // @formatter:off/// @formatter:on. These require separate comments and a mandatory space after the // marker.

Open blocks (--) are not supported in the AsciiDoc documentation. All the other types of blocks (source, admonitions…​) are supported.

By default, the documentation generator will use the hyphenated field name as the key of a java.util.Map. Use the io.quarkus.runtime.annotations.ConfigDocMapKey annotation to override the behaviour.

@ConfigMapping(prefix = "quarkus.some")
public interface SomeConfig {
     * Namespace configuration.
    @ConfigDocMapKey("cache-name") (1)
    Map<String, Name> namespace();
1 This will generate a configuration map key named quarkus.some."cache-name" instead of quarkus.some."namespace".

It is possible to write a textual explanation for the documentation default value, this is useful when it is generated: @ConfigDocDefault("explain how this is generated").

@ConfigDocEnumValue gives a way to explicitly customize the string displayed in the documentation when listing accepted values for an enum. Writing section documentation

To generate a configuration section of a given group, use the @ConfigDocSection annotation:

* Config group related configuration.
* Amazing introduction here
@ConfigDocSection (1)
ConfigGroupConfig configGroup();
1 This will add a section documentation for the configGroup config item in the generated documentation. The section title and introduction will be derived from the javadoc of the configuration item. The first sentence from the javadoc is considered as the section title and the remaining sentences used as section introduction. Generating the documentation

To generate the documentation:

  • Execute ./mvnw -DquicklyDocs

  • Can be executed globally or in a specific extension directory (e.g. extensions/mailer).

The documentation is generated in the global target/asciidoc/generated/config/ located at the root of the project. Including the documentation in the extension guide

To include the generated configuration reference documentation in a guide, use:

include::{generated-dir}/config/quarkus-your-extension.adoc[opts=optional, leveloffset=+1]

To include only a specific config group:

include::{generated-dir}/config/hyphenated-config-group-class-name-with-runtime-or-deployment-namespace-replaced-by-config-group-namespace.adoc[opts=optional, leveloffset=+1]

For example, the io.quarkus.vertx.http.runtime.FormAuthConfig configuration group will be generated in a file named quarkus-vertx-http-config-group-form-auth-config.adoc.

A few recommendations:

  • opts=optional is mandatory to not fail the build if only part of the configuration documentation has been generated.

  • The documentation is generated with a title level of 2 (i.e. ==). It may need an adjustment with leveloffset=+N.

  • The whole configuration documentation should not be included in the middle of the guide.

If the guide includes an application.properties example, a tip must be included just below the code snippet:

For more information about the extension configuration please refer to the <<configuration-reference,Configuration Reference>>.

And at the end of the guide, the extensive configuration documentation:

== Configuration Reference

include::{generated-dir}/config/quarkus-your-extension.adoc[opts=optional, leveloffset=+1]

All documentation should be generated and validated before being committed.

2.5. Conditional Step Inclusion

It is possible to only include a given @BuildStep under certain conditions. The @BuildStep annotation has two optional parameters: onlyIf and onlyIfNot. These parameters can be set to one or more classes which implement BooleanSupplier. The build step will only be included when the method returns true (for onlyIf) or false (for onlyIfNot).

The condition class can inject configuration mappings as long as they belong to a build-time phase. Run time configuration is not available for condition classes.

The condition class may also inject a value of type io.quarkus.runtime.LaunchMode. Constructor parameter and field injection is supported.

An example of a conditional build step
@BuildStep(onlyIf = IsDevMode.class)
LogCategoryBuildItem enableDebugLogging() {
    return new LogCategoryBuildItem("org.your.quarkus.extension", Level.DEBUG);

static class IsDevMode implements BooleanSupplier {
    LaunchMode launchMode;

    public boolean getAsBoolean() {
        return launchMode == LaunchMode.DEVELOPMENT;
If you need to make your build step conditional on the presence or absence of another extension, you can use Capabilities for that.

You can also apply a set of conditions to all build steps in a given class with @BuildSteps:

Class-wide condition for build step with @BuildSteps
@BuildSteps(onlyIf = MyDevModeProcessor.IsDevMode.class) (1)
class MyDevModeProcessor {

    SomeOutputBuildItem mainBuildStep(SomeOtherBuildItem input) { (2)
        return new SomeOutputBuildItem(input.getValue());

    SomeOtherOutputBuildItem otherBuildStep(SomeOtherInputBuildItem input) { (3)
        return new SomeOtherOutputBuildItem(input.getValue());

    static class IsDevMode implements BooleanSupplier {
        LaunchMode launchMode;

        public boolean getAsBoolean() {
            return launchMode == LaunchMode.DEVELOPMENT;
1 This condition will apply to all methods defined in MyDevModeProcessor
2 The main build step will only be executed in dev mode.
3 The other build step will only be executed in dev mode.

2.6. Bytecode Recording

One of the main outputs of the build process is recorded bytecode. This bytecode actually sets up the runtime environment. For example, in order to start Undertow, the resulting application will have some bytecode that directly registers all Servlet instances and then starts Undertow.

As writing bytecode directly is complex, this is instead done via bytecode recorders. At deployment time, invocations are made on recorder objects that contain the actual runtime logic, but instead of these invocations proceeding as normal they are intercepted and recorded (hence the name). This recording is then used to generate bytecode that performs the same sequence of invocations at runtime. This is essentially a form of deferred execution where invocations made at deployment time get deferred until runtime.

Let’s look at the classic 'Hello World' type example. To do this the Quarkus way we would create a recorder as follows:

class HelloRecorder {

  public void sayHello(String name) {
    System.out.println("Hello" + name);


And then create a build step that uses this recorder:

public void helloBuildStep(HelloRecorder recorder) {

When this build step is run nothing is printed to the console. This is because the HelloRecorder that is injected is actually a proxy that records all invocations. Instead, if we run the resulting Quarkus program we will see 'Hello World' printed to the console.

Methods on a recorder can return a value, which must be proxiable (if you want to return a non-proxiable item wrap it in io.quarkus.runtime.RuntimeValue). These proxies may not be invoked directly, however they can be passed into other recorder methods. This can be any recorder method, including from other @BuildStep methods, so a common pattern is to produce BuildItem instances that wrap the results of these recorder invocations.

For instance, in order to make arbitrary changes to a Servlet deployment Undertow has a ServletExtensionBuildItem, which is a MultiBuildItem that wraps a ServletExtension instance. I can return a ServletExtension from a recorder in another module, and Undertow will consume it and pass it into the recorder method that starts Undertow.

At runtime the bytecode will be invoked in the order it is generated. This means that build step dependencies implicitly control the order that generated bytecode is run. In the example above we know that the bytecode that produces a ServletExtensionBuildItem will be run before the bytecode that consumes it.

The following objects can be passed to recorders:

  • Primitives

  • String

  • Class<?> objects

  • Objects returned from a previous recorder invocation

  • Objects with a no-arg constructor and getter/setters for all properties (or public fields)

  • Objects with a constructor annotated with @RecordableConstructor with parameter names that match field names

  • Any arbitrary object via the io.quarkus.deployment.recording.RecorderContext#registerSubstitution(Class, Class, Class) mechanism

  • Arrays, Lists and Maps of the above

In cases where some fields of an object to be recorded should be ignored (i.e. the value that being at build time should not be reflected at runtime), the @IgnoreProperty can be placed on the field.

If the class cannot depend on Quarkus, then Quarkus can use any custom annotation, as long as the extension implements the io.quarkus.deployment.recording.RecordingAnnotationsProvider SPI.

This same SPI can also be used to provide a custom annotation that will substitute for @RecordableConstructor.

2.6.1. Injecting Configuration into Recorders

Configuration objects with phase RUNTIME or BUILD_AND_RUNTIME_FIXED can be injected into recorders via constructor injection. Just create a constructor that takes the configuration objects the recorder needs. If the recorder has multiple constructors you can annotate the one you want Quarkus to use with @Inject. If the recorder wants to inject runtime config but is also used at static init time then it needs to inject a RuntimeValue<ConfigObject>, this value will only be set when the runtime methods are being invoked.

2.6.2. RecorderContext

io.quarkus.deployment.recording.RecorderContext provides some convenience methods to enhance bytecode recording, this includes the ability to register creation functions for classes without no-arg constructors, to register an object substitution (basically a transformer from a non-serializable object to a serializable one and vice versa), and to create a class proxy. This interface can be directly injected as a method parameter into any @Record method.

Calling classProxy with a given fully-qualified class name will create a Class instance that can be passed into a recorder method, and at runtime will be substituted with the class whose name was passed in to classProxy(). However, this method should not be needed in most use cases because directly loading deployment/application classes at processing time in build steps is safe. Therefore, this method is deprecated. Nonetheless, there are some use cases where this method comes in handy, such as referring to classes that were generated in previous build steps using GeneratedClassBuildItem.

2.6.3. Runtime Classpath check

Extensions often need a way to determine whether a given class is part of the application’s runtime classpath. The proper way for an extension to perform this check is to use io.quarkus.bootstrap.classloading.QuarkusClassLoader.isClassPresentAtRuntime.

2.6.4. Printing step execution time

At times, it can be useful to know how the exact time each startup task (which is the result of each bytecode recording) takes when the application is run. The simplest way to determine this information is to launch the Quarkus application with the -Dquarkus.debug.print-startup-times=true system property. The output will look something like:

Build step LoggingResourceProcessor.setupLoggingRuntimeInit completed in: 42ms
Build step ConfigGenerationBuildStep.checkForBuildTimeConfigChange completed in: 4ms
Build step SyntheticBeansProcessor.initRuntime completed in: 0ms
Build step ConfigBuildStep.validateConfigProperties completed in: 1ms
Build step ResteasyStandaloneBuildStep.boot completed in: 95ms
Build step VertxHttpProcessor.initializeRouter completed in: 1ms
Build step VertxHttpProcessor.finalizeRouter completed in: 4ms
Build step LifecycleEventsBuildStep.startupEvent completed in: 1ms
Build step VertxHttpProcessor.openSocket completed in: 93ms
Build step ShutdownListenerBuildStep.setupShutdown completed in: 1ms

2.7. Contexts and Dependency Injection

2.7.1. Extension Points

As a CDI based runtime, Quarkus extensions often make CDI beans available as part of the extension behavior. However, Quarkus DI solution does not support CDI Portable Extensions. Instead, Quarkus extensions can make use of various Build Time Extension Points.

2.8. Quarkus Dev UI

You can make your extension support the Quarkus Dev UI for a greater developer experience.

2.9. Extension-defined endpoints

Your extension can add additional, non-application endpoints to be served alongside endpoints for Health, Metrics, OpenAPI, Swagger UI, etc.

Use a NonApplicationRootPathBuildItem to define an endpoint:

RouteBuildItem myExtensionRoute(NonApplicationRootPathBuildItem nonApplicationRootPathBuildItem) {
    return nonApplicationRootPathBuildItem.routeBuilder()
                .handler(new MyCustomHandler())

Note that the path above does not start with a '/', indicating it is a relative path. The above endpoint will be served relative to the configured non-application endpoint root. The non-application endpoint root is /q by default, which means the resulting endpoint will be found at /q/custom-endpoint.

Absolute paths are handled differently. If the above called route("/custom-endpoint"), the resulting endpoint will be found at /custom-endpoint.

If an extension needs nested non-application endpoints:

RouteBuildItem myNestedExtensionRoute(NonApplicationRootPathBuildItem nonApplicationRootPathBuildItem) {
    return nonApplicationRootPathBuildItem.routeBuilder()
                .nestedRoute("custom-endpoint", "deep")
                .handler(new MyCustomHandler())

Given a default non-application endpoint root of /q, this will create an endpoint at /q/custom-endpoint/deep.

Absolute paths also have an impact on nested endpoints. If the above called nestedRoute("custom-endpoint", "/deep"), the resulting endpoint will be found at /deep.

Refer to the Quarkus Vertx HTTP configuration reference for details on how the non-application root path is configured.

2.10. Extension Health Check

Health checks are provided via the quarkus-smallrye-health extension. It provides both liveness and readiness checks capabilities.

When writing an extension, it’s beneficial to provide health checks for the extension, that can be automatically included without the developer needing to write their own.

In order to provide a health check, you should do the following:

  • Import the quarkus-smallrye-health extension as an optional dependency in your runtime module so it will not impact the size of the application if health check is not included.

  • Create your health check following the SmallRye Health guide. We advise providing only readiness check for an extension (liveness check is designed to express the fact that an application is up and needs to be lightweight).

  • Import the quarkus-smallrye-health-spi library in your deployment module.

  • Add a build step in your deployment module that produces a HealthBuildItem.

  • Add a way to disable the extension health check via a config item quarkus.<extension>.health.enabled that should be enabled by default.

Following is an example from the Agroal extension that provides a DataSourceHealthCheck to validate the readiness of a datasource.

HealthBuildItem addHealthCheck(AgroalBuildTimeConfig agroalBuildTimeConfig) {
    return new HealthBuildItem("io.quarkus.agroal.runtime.health.DataSourceHealthCheck",

2.11. Extension Metrics

The quarkus-micrometer extension and the quarkus-smallrye-metrics extension provide support for collecting metrics. As a compatibility note, the quarkus-micrometer extension adapts the MP Metrics API to Micrometer library primitives, so the quarkus-micrometer extension can be enabled without breaking code that relies on the MP Metrics API. Note that the metrics emitted by Micrometer are different, see the quarkus-micrometer extension documentation for more information.

The compatibility layer for MP Metrics APIs will move to a different extension in the future.

There are two broad patterns that extensions can use to interact with an optional metrics extension to add their own metrics:

  • Consumer pattern: An extension declares a MetricsFactoryConsumerBuildItem and uses that to provide a bytecode recorder to the metrics extension. When the metrics extension has initialized, it will iterate over registered consumers to initialize them with a MetricsFactory. This factory can be used to declare API-agnostic metrics, which can be a good fit for extensions that provide an instrumentable object for gathering statistics (e.g. Hibernate’s Statistics class).

  • Binder pattern: An extension can opt to use completely different gathering implementations depending on the metrics system. An Optional<MetricsCapabilityBuildItem> metricsCapability build step parameter can be used to declare or otherwise initialize API-specific metrics based on the active metrics extension (e.g. "smallrye-metrics" or "micrometer"). This pattern can be combined with the consumer pattern by using MetricsFactory::metricsSystemSupported() to test the active metrics extension within the recorder.

Remember that support for metrics is optional. Extensions can use an Optional<MetricsCapabilityBuildItem> metricsCapability parameter in their build step to test for the presence of an enabled metrics extension. Consider using additional configuration to control behavior of metrics. Datasource metrics can be expensive, for example, so additional configuration flags are used enable metrics collection on individual datasources.

When adding metrics for your extension, you may find yourself in one of the following situations:

  1. An underlying library used by the extension is using a specific Metrics API directly (either MP Metrics, Micrometer, or some other).

  2. An underlying library uses its own mechanism for collecting metrics and makes them available at runtime using its own API, e.g. Hibernate’s Statistics class, or Vert.x MetricsOptions.

  3. An underlying library does not provide metrics (or there is no library at all) and you want to add instrumentation.

2.11.1. Case 1: The library uses a metrics library directly

If the library directly uses a metrics API, there are two options:

  • Use an Optional<MetricsCapabilityBuildItem> metricsCapability parameter to test which metrics API is supported (e.g. "smallrye-metrics" or "micrometer") in your build step, and use that to selectively declare or initialize API-specific beans or build items.

  • Create a separate build step that consumes a MetricsFactory, and use the MetricsFactory::metricsSystemSupported() method within the bytecode recorder to initialize required resources if the desired metrics API is supported (e.g. "smallrye-metrics" or "micrometer").

Extensions may need to provide a fallback if there is no active metrics extension or the extension doesn’t support the API required by the library.

2.11.2. Case 2: The library provides its own metric API

There are two examples of a library providing its own metrics API:

  • The extension defines an instrumentable object as Agroal does with io.agroal.api.AgroalDataSourceMetrics, or

  • The extension provides its own abstraction of metrics, as Jaeger does with io.jaegertracing.spi.MetricsFactory. Observing instrumentable objects

Let’s take the instrumentable object (io.agroal.api.AgroalDataSourceMetrics) case first. In this case, you can do the following:

  • Define a BuildStep that produces a MetricsFactoryConsumerBuildItem that uses a RUNTIME_INIT or STATIC_INIT Recorder to define a MetricsFactory consumer. For example, the following creates a MetricsFactoryConsumerBuildItem if and only if metrics are enabled both for Agroal generally, and for a datasource specifically:

    void registerMetrics(AgroalMetricsRecorder recorder,
            DataSourcesBuildTimeConfig dataSourcesBuildTimeConfig,
            BuildProducer<MetricsFactoryConsumerBuildItem> datasourceMetrics,
            List<AggregatedDataSourceBuildTimeConfigBuildItem> aggregatedDataSourceBuildTimeConfigs) {
        for (AggregatedDataSourceBuildTimeConfigBuildItem aggregatedDataSourceBuildTimeConfig : aggregatedDataSourceBuildTimeConfigs) {
            // Create a MetricsFactory consumer to register metrics for a data source
            // IFF metrics are enabled globally and for the data source
            // (they are enabled for each data source by default if they are also enabled globally)
            if (dataSourcesBuildTimeConfig.metricsEnabled &&
                    aggregatedDataSourceBuildTimeConfig.getJdbcConfig().enableMetrics.orElse(true)) {
                datasourceMetrics.produce(new MetricsFactoryConsumerBuildItem(
  • The associated recorder should use the provided MetricsFactory to register metrics. For Agroal, this means using the MetricFactory API to observe io.agroal.api.AgroalDataSourceMetrics methods. For example:

    /* RUNTIME_INIT */
    public Consumer<MetricsFactory> registerDataSourceMetrics(String dataSourceName) {
        return new Consumer<MetricsFactory>() {
            public void accept(MetricsFactory metricsFactory) {
                String tagValue = DataSourceUtil.isDefault(dataSourceName) ? "default" : dataSourceName;
                AgroalDataSourceMetrics metrics = getDataSource(dataSourceName).getMetrics();
                // When using MP Metrics, the builder uses the VENDOR registry by default.
                                "Number of active connections. These connections are in use and not available to be acquired.")
                        .tag("datasource", tagValue)

The MetricsFactory provides a fluid builder for registration of metrics, with the final step constructing gauges or counters based on a Supplier or ToDoubleFunction. Timers can either wrap Callable, Runnable, or Supplier implementations, or can use a TimeRecorder to accumulate chunks of time. The underlying metrics extension will create appropriate artifacts to observe or measure the defined functions. Using a Metrics API-specific implementation

Using metrics-API specific implementations may be preferred in some cases. Jaeger, for example, defines its own metrics interface, io.jaegertracing.spi.MetricsFactory, that it uses to define counters and gauges. A direct mapping from that interface to the metrics system will be the most efficient. In this case, it is important to isolate these specialized implementations and to avoid eager classloading to ensure the metrics API remains an optional, compile-time dependency.

Optional<MetricsCapabilityBuildItem> metricsCapability can be used in the build step to selectively control initialization of beans or the production of other build items. The Jaeger extension, for example, can use the following to control initialization of specialized Metrics API adapters:


void setupTracer(JaegerDeploymentRecorder jdr, JaegerBuildTimeConfig buildTimeConfig, JaegerConfig jaeger,
        ApplicationConfig appConfig, Optional<MetricsCapabilityBuildItem> metricsCapability) {

    // Indicates that this extension would like the SSL support to be enabled
    extensionSslNativeSupport.produce(new ExtensionSslNativeSupportBuildItem(Feature.JAEGER.getName()));

    if (buildTimeConfig.enabled) {
        // To avoid dependency creep, use two separate recorder methods for the two metrics systems
        if (buildTimeConfig.metricsEnabled && metricsCapability.isPresent()) {
            if (metricsCapability.get().metricsSupported(MetricsFactory.MICROMETER)) {
                jdr.registerTracerWithMicrometerMetrics(jaeger, appConfig);
            } else {
                jdr.registerTracerWithMpMetrics(jaeger, appConfig);
        } else {
            jdr.registerTracerWithoutMetrics(jaeger, appConfig);

A recorder consuming a MetricsFactory can use MetricsFactory::metricsSystemSupported() can be used to control initialization of metrics objects during bytecode recording in a similar way.

2.11.3. Case 3: It is necessary to collect metrics within the extension code

To define your own metrics from scratch, you have two basic options: Use the generic MetricFactory builders, or follow the binder pattern, and create instrumentation specific to the enabled metrics extension.

To use the extension-agnostic MetricFactory API, your processor can define a BuildStep that produces a MetricsFactoryConsumerBuildItem that uses a RUNTIME_INIT or STATIC_INIT Recorder to define a MetricsFactory consumer.


MetricsFactoryConsumerBuildItem registerMetrics(MyExtensionRecorder recorder) {
    return new MetricsFactoryConsumerBuildItem(recorder.registerMetrics());

+ - The associated recorder should use the provided MetricsFactory to register metrics, for example


final LongAdder extensionCounter = new LongAdder();

public Consumer<MetricsFactory> registerMetrics() {
    return new Consumer<MetricsFactory>() {
        public void accept(MetricsFactory metricsFactory) {

Remember that metrics extensions are optional. Keep metrics-related initialization isolated from other setup for your extension, and structure your code to avoid eager imports of metrics APIs. Gathering metrics can also be expensive. Consider using additional extension-specific configuration to control behavior of metrics if the presence/absence of metrics support isn’t sufficient.

2.12. Customizing JSON handling from an extension

Extensions often need to register serializers and/or deserializers for types the extension provides.

For this, both Jackson and JSON-B extensions provide a way to register serializer/deserializer from within an extension deployment module.

Keep in mind that not everybody will need JSON, so you need to make it optional.

If an extension intends to provide JSON related customization, it is strongly advised to provide customization for both Jackson and JSON-B.

2.12.1. Customizing Jackson

First, add an optional dependency to quarkus-jackson on your extension’s runtime module.


Then create a serializer or a deserializer (or both) for Jackson, an example of which can be seen in the mongodb-panache extension.

public class ObjectIdSerializer extends StdSerializer<ObjectId> {
    public ObjectIdSerializer() {
    public void serialize(ObjectId objectId, JsonGenerator jsonGenerator, SerializerProvider serializerProvider)
            throws IOException {
        if (objectId != null) {

Add a dependency to quarkus-jackson-spi on your extension’s deployment module.


Add a build step to your processor to register a Jackson module via the JacksonModuleBuildItem. You need to name your module in a unique way across all Jackson modules.

JacksonModuleBuildItem registerJacksonSerDeser() {
    return new JacksonModuleBuildItem.Builder("ObjectIdModule")

The Jackson extension will then use the produced build item to register a module within Jackson automatically.

If you need more customization capabilities than registering a module, you can produce a CDI bean that implements io.quarkus.jackson.ObjectMapperCustomizer via an AdditionalBeanBuildItem. More info about customizing Jackson can be found on the JSON guide Configuring JSON support

2.12.2. Customizing JSON-B

First, add an optional dependency to quarkus-jsonb on your extension’s runtime module.


Then create a serializer and/or a deserializer for JSON-B, an example of which can be seen in the mongodb-panache extension.

public class ObjectIdSerializer implements JsonbSerializer<ObjectId> {
    public void serialize(ObjectId obj, JsonGenerator generator, SerializationContext ctx) {
        if (obj != null) {

Add a dependency to quarkus-jsonb-spi on your extension’s deployment module.


Add a build step to your processor to register the serializer via the JsonbSerializerBuildItem.

JsonbSerializerBuildItem registerJsonbSerializer() {
    return new JsonbSerializerBuildItem(io.quarkus.mongodb.panache.jsonb.ObjectIdSerializer.class.getName()));

The JSON-B extension will then use the produced build item to register your serializer/deserializer automatically.

If you need more customization capabilities than registering a serializer or a deserializer, you can produce a CDI bean that implements io.quarkus.jsonb.JsonbConfigCustomizer via an AdditionalBeanBuildItem. More info about customizing JSON-B can be found on the JSON guide Configuring JSON support

2.13. Integrating with Development Mode

There are various APIS that you can use to integrate with development mode, and to get information about the current state.

2.13.1. Handling restarts

When Quarkus is starting the io.quarkus.deployment.builditem.LiveReloadBuildItem is guaranteed to be present that gives information about this start, in particular:

  • Is this a clean start or a live reload

  • If this is a live reload which changed files / classes triggered the reload

It also provides a global context map you can use to store information between restarts, without needing to resort to static fields.

2.13.2. Triggering Live Reload

Live reload is generally triggered by an HTTP request, however not all applications are HTTP applications and some extensions may want to trigger live reload based on other events. To do this you need to implement io.quarkus.dev.spi.HotReplacementSetup in your runtime module, and add a META-INF/services/io.quarkus.dev.spi.HotReplacementSetup that lists your implementation.

On startup the setupHotDeployment method will be called, and you can use the provided io.quarkus.dev.spi.HotReplacementContext to initiate a scan for changed files.

2.14. Testing Extensions

Testing of Quarkus extensions should be done with the io.quarkus.test.QuarkusUnitTest JUnit 5 extension. This extension allows for Arquillian-style tests that test specific functionalities. It is not intended for testing user applications, as this should be done via io.quarkus.test.junit.QuarkusTest. The main difference is that QuarkusTest simply boots the application once at the start of the run, while QuarkusUnitTest deploys a custom Quarkus application for each test class.

These tests should be placed in the deployment module, if additional Quarkus modules are required for testing their deployment modules should also be added as test scoped dependencies.

Note that QuarkusUnitTest is in the quarkus-junit5-internal module.

An example test class may look like:

package io.quarkus.health.test;

import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions.assertEquals;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;

import jakarta.enterprise.inject.Instance;
import jakarta.inject.Inject;

import org.eclipse.microprofile.health.Liveness;
import org.eclipse.microprofile.health.HealthCheck;
import org.eclipse.microprofile.health.HealthCheckResponse;
import io.quarkus.test.QuarkusUnitTest;
import org.jboss.shrinkwrap.api.ShrinkWrap;
import org.jboss.shrinkwrap.api.asset.EmptyAsset;
import org.jboss.shrinkwrap.api.spec.JavaArchive;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.extension.RegisterExtension;

import io.restassured.RestAssured;

public class FailingUnitTest {

    @RegisterExtension                                                                  (1)
    static final QuarkusUnitTest config = new QuarkusUnitTest()
            .setArchiveProducer(() ->
                    ShrinkWrap.create(JavaArchive.class)                                (2)
                            .addAsManifestResource(EmptyAsset.INSTANCE, "beans.xml")

    @Inject                                                                             (3)
    Instance<HealthCheck> checks;

    public void testHealthServlet() {
        RestAssured.when().get("/q/health").then().statusCode(503);                       (4)

    public void testHealthBeans() {
        List<HealthCheck> check = new ArrayList<>();                                    (5)
        for (HealthCheck i : checks) {
        assertEquals(1, check.size());
        assertEquals(HealthCheckResponse.State.DOWN, check.get(0).call().getState());
1 The QuarkusUnitTest extension must be used with a static field. If used with a non-static field, the test application is not started.
2 This producer is used to build the application to be tested. It uses Shrinkwrap to create a JavaArchive to test
3 It is possible to inject beans from our test deployment directly into the test case
4 This method directly invokes the health check Servlet and verifies the response
5 This method uses the injected health check bean to verify it is returning the expected result

If you want to test that an extension properly fails at build time, use the setExpectedException method:

package io.quarkus.hibernate.orm;

import io.quarkus.runtime.configuration.ConfigurationException;
import io.quarkus.test.QuarkusUnitTest;
import org.jboss.shrinkwrap.api.ShrinkWrap;
import org.jboss.shrinkwrap.api.spec.JavaArchive;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.extension.RegisterExtension;

public class PersistenceAndQuarkusConfigTest {

    static QuarkusUnitTest runner = new QuarkusUnitTest()
            .setExpectedException(ConfigurationException.class)                     (1)
            .withApplicationRoot((jar) -> jar
                    .addAsManifestResource("META-INF/some-persistence.xml", "persistence.xml")

    public void testPersistenceAndConfigTest() {
        // should not be called, deployment exception should happen first:
        // it's illegal to have Hibernate configuration properties in both the
        // application.properties and in the persistence.xml

1 This tells JUnit that the Quarkus deployment should fail with a specific exception

2.15. Testing hot reload

It is also possible to write tests that verify an extension works correctly in development mode and can correctly handle updates.

For most extensions this will just work 'out of the box', however it is still a good idea to have a smoke test to verify that this functionality is working as expected. To test this we use QuarkusDevModeTest:

public class ServletChangeTestCase {

    final static QuarkusDevModeTest test = new QuarkusDevModeTest()
            .setArchiveProducer(new Supplier<>() {
                public JavaArchive get() {
                    return ShrinkWrap.create(JavaArchive.class)   (1)
                            .addAsManifestResource(new StringAsset("Hello Resource"), "resources/file.txt");

    public void testServletChange() throws InterruptedException {
                .body(is("Hello World"));

        test.modifySourceFile("DevServlet.java", new Function<String, String>() {  (2)

            public String apply(String s) {
                return s.replace("Hello World", "Hello Quarkus");

                .body(is("Hello Quarkus"));

    public void testAddServlet() throws InterruptedException {

        test.addSourceFile(NewServlet.class);                                       (3)

                .body(is("A new Servlet"));

    public void testResourceChange() throws InterruptedException {
                .body(is("Hello Resource"));

        test.modifyResourceFile("META-INF/resources/file.txt", new Function<String, String>() { (4)

            public String apply(String s) {
                return "A new resource";

                .body(is("A new resource"));

    public void testAddResource() throws InterruptedException {


        test.addResourceFile("META-INF/resources/new.txt", "New File");  (5)

                .body(is("New File"));

1 This starts the deployment, your test can modify it as part of the test suite. Quarkus will be restarted between each test method so every method starts with a clean deployment.
2 This method allows you to modify the source of a class file. The old source is passed into the function, and the updated source is returned.
3 This method adds a new class file to the deployment. The source that is used will be the original source that is part of the current project.
4 This method modifies a static resource
5 This method adds a new static resource

2.16. Native Executable Support

There Quarkus provides a lot of build items that control aspects of the native executable build. This allows for extensions to programmatically perform tasks such as registering classes for reflection or adding static resources to the native executable. Some of these build items are listed below:


Includes static resources into the native executable.


Includes directory’s static resources into the native executable.


A class that will be reinitialized at runtime by Substrate. This will result in the static initializer running twice.


A system property that will be set at native executable build time.


Includes a resource bundle in the native executable.


Registers a class for reflection in Substrate. Constructors are always registered, while methods and fields are optional.


A class that will be initialized at runtime rather than build time. This will cause the build to fail if the class is initialized as part of the native executable build process, so care must be taken.


A convenience feature that allows you to control most of the above features from a single build item.


Indicates that all charsets should be enabled in native image.


A convenient way to tell Quarkus that the extension requires SSL, and it should be enabled during native image build. When using this feature, remember to add your extension to the list of extensions that offer SSL support automatically on the native and ssl guide.

2.17. IDE support tips

2.17.1. Writing Quarkus extensions in Eclipse

The only particular aspect of writing Quarkus extensions in Eclipse is that APT (Annotation Processing Tool) is required as part of extension builds, which means you need to:

  • Install m2e-apt from https://marketplace.eclipse.org/content/m2e-apt

  • Define this property in your pom.xml: <m2e.apt.activation>jdt_apt</m2e.apt.activation>, although if you rely on io.quarkus:quarkus-build-parent you will get it for free.

  • If you have the io.quarkus:quarkus-extension-processor project open at the same time in your IDE (for example, if you have the Quarkus sources checked out and open in your IDE) you will need to close that project. Otherwise, Eclipse will not invoke the APT plugin that it contains.

  • If you just closed the extension processor project, be sure to do Maven > Update Project on the other projects in order for Eclipse to pick up the extension processor from the Maven repository.

2.18. Troubleshooting / Debugging Tips

2.18.1. Inspecting the Generated/Transformed Classes

Quarkus generates a lot of classes during the build phase and in many cases also transforms existing classes. It is often extremely useful to see the generated bytecode and transformed classes during the development of an extension.

If you set the quarkus.package.jar.decompiler.enabled property to true then Quarkus will download and invoke the Vineflower decompiler and dump the result in the decompiled directory of the build tool output (target/decompiled for Maven for example).

This property only works during a normal production build (i.e. not for dev mode/tests) and when fast-jar packaging type is used (the default behavior).

There are also three system properties that allow you to dump the generated/transformed classes to the filesystem and inspect them later, for example via a decompiler in your IDE.

  • quarkus.debug.generated-classes-dir - to dump the generated classes, such as bean metadata

  • quarkus.debug.transformed-classes-dir - to dump the transformed classes, e.g. Panache entities

  • quarkus.debug.generated-sources-dir - to dump the ZIG files; ZIG file is a textual representation of the generated code that is referenced in the stack traces

These properties are especially useful in the development mode or when running the tests where the generated/transformed classes are only held in memory in a class loader.

For example, you can specify the quarkus.debug.generated-classes-dir system property to have these classes written out to disk for inspection in the development mode:

./mvnw quarkus:dev -Dquarkus.debug.generated-classes-dir=dump-classes
The property value could be either an absolute path, such as /home/foo/dump on a Linux machine, or a path relative to the user working directory, i.e. dump corresponds to the {user.dir}/target/dump in the dev mode and {user.dir}/dump when running the tests.

You should see a line in the log for each class written to the directory:

INFO  [io.qua.run.boo.StartupActionImpl] (main) Wrote /path/to/my/app/target/dump-classes/io/quarkus/arc/impl/ActivateRequestContextInterceptor_Bean.class

The property is also honored when running tests:

./mvnw clean test -Dquarkus.debug.generated-classes-dir=target/dump-generated-classes

Analogously, you can use the quarkus.debug.transformed-classes-dir and quarkus.debug.generated-sources-dir properties to dump the relevant output.

2.18.2. Multi-module Maven Projects and the Development Mode

It’s not uncommon to develop an extension in a multi-module Maven project that also contains an "example" module. However, if you want to run the example in the development mode then the -DnoDeps system property must be used in order to exclude the local project dependencies. Otherwise, Quarkus attempts to monitor the extension classes and this may result in weird class loading issues.

./mvnw compile quarkus:dev -DnoDeps

2.18.3. Indexer does not include your external dependency

Remember to add IndexDependencyBuildItem artifacts to your @BuildStep.

2.19. Sample Test Extension

We have an extension that is used to test for regressions in the extension processing. It is located in https://github.com/quarkusio/quarkus/tree/main/integration-tests/test-extension/extension directory. In this section we touch on some tasks an extension author will typically need to perform using the test-extension code to illustrate how the task could be done.

2.19.1. Features and Capabilities Features

A feature represents a functionality provided by an extension. The name of the feature gets displayed in the log during application bootstrap.

Example Startup Lines
2019-03-22 14:02:37,884 INFO  [io.quarkus] (main) Quarkus 999-SNAPSHOT started in 0.061s.
2019-03-22 14:02:37,884 INFO  [io.quarkus] (main) Installed features: [cdi, test-extension] (1)
1 A list of features installed in the runtime image

A feature can be registered in a Build Step Processors method that produces a FeatureBuildItem:

    FeatureBuildItem feature() {
        return new FeatureBuildItem("test-extension");

The name of the feature should only contain lowercase characters, words are separated by dash; e.g. security-jpa. An extension should provide at most one feature and the name must be unique. If multiple extensions register a feature of the same name the build fails.

The feature name should also map to a label in the extension’s devtools/common/src/main/filtered/extensions.json entry so that the feature name displayed by the startup line matches a label that one can use to select the extension when creating a project using the Quarkus maven plugin as shown in this example taken from the Writing JSON REST Services guide where the rest-jackson feature is referenced:

mvn io.quarkus.platform:quarkus-maven-plugin:3.12.3:create \
    -DprojectGroupId=org.acme \
    -DprojectArtifactId=rest-json \
    -DclassName="org.acme.rest.json.FruitResource" \
    -Dpath="/fruits" \
cd rest-json Capabilities

A capability represents a technical capability that can be queried by other extensions. An extension may provide multiple capabilities and multiple extensions can provide the same capability. By default, capabilities are not displayed to users. Capabilities should be used when checking for the presence of an extension rather than class path based checks.

Capabilities can be registered in a Build Step Processors method that produces a CapabilityBuildItem:

    void capabilities(BuildProducer<CapabilityBuildItem> capabilityProducer) {
        capabilityProducer.produce(new CapabilityBuildItem("org.acme.test-transactions"));
        capabilityProducer.produce(new CapabilityBuildItem("org.acme.test-metrics"));

Extensions can consume registered capabilities using the Capabilities build item:

    void doSomeCoolStuff(Capabilities capabilities) {
        if (capabilities.isPresent(Capability.TRANSACTIONS)) {
          // do something only if JTA transactions are in...

Capabilities should follow the naming conventions of Java packages; e.g. io.quarkus.security.jpa. Capabilities provided by core extensions should be listed in the io.quarkus.deployment.Capability enum and their name should always start with the io.quarkus prefix.

2.19.2. Bean Defining Annotations

The CDI layer processes CDI beans that are either explicitly registered or that it discovers based on bean defining annotations as defined in 2.5.1. Bean defining annotations. You can expand this set of annotations to include annotations your extension processes using a BeanDefiningAnnotationBuildItem as shown in this TestProcessor#registerBeanDefinningAnnotations example:

Register a Bean Defining Annotation
import jakarta.enterprise.context.ApplicationScoped;
import org.jboss.jandex.DotName;
import io.quarkus.extest.runtime.TestAnnotation;

public final class TestProcessor {
    static DotName TEST_ANNOTATION = DotName.createSimple(TestAnnotation.class.getName());
    static DotName TEST_ANNOTATION_SCOPE = DotName.createSimple(ApplicationScoped.class.getName());


    BeanDefiningAnnotationBuildItem registerX() {
        return new BeanDefiningAnnotationBuildItem(TEST_ANNOTATION, TEST_ANNOTATION_SCOPE);

 * Marker annotation for test configuration target beans
@Target({ TYPE })
public @interface TestAnnotation {

 * A sample bean
@TestAnnotation (2)
public class ConfiguredBean implements IConfigConsumer {

1 Register the annotation class and CDI default scope using the Jandex DotName class.
2 ConfiguredBean will be processed by the CDI layer the same as a bean annotated with the CDI standard @ApplicationScoped.

2.19.3. Parsing Config to Objects

One of the main things an extension is likely to do is completely separate the configuration phase of behavior from the runtime phase. Frameworks often do parsing/load of configuration on startup that can be done during build time to both reduce the runtime dependencies on frameworks like xml parsers as well as reducing the startup time the parsing incurs.

An example of parsing an XML config file using JAXB is shown in the TestProcessor#parseServiceXmlConfig method:

Parsing an XML Configuration into Runtime XmlConfig Instance
    RuntimeServiceBuildItem parseServiceXmlConfig(TestRecorder recorder) throws JAXBException {
        RuntimeServiceBuildItem serviceBuildItem = null;
        JAXBContext context = JAXBContext.newInstance(XmlConfig.class);
        Unmarshaller unmarshaller = context.createUnmarshaller();
        InputStream is = getClass().getResourceAsStream("/config.xml"); (1)
        if (is != null) {
            log.info("Have XmlConfig, loading");
            XmlConfig config = (XmlConfig) unmarshaller.unmarshal(is); (2)
        return serviceBuildItem;
1 Look for a config.xml classpath resource
2 If found, parse using JAXB context for XmlConfig.class

If there was no /config.xml resource available in the build environment, then a null RuntimeServiceBuildItem would be returned and no subsequent logic based on a RuntimeServiceBuildItem being produced would execute.

Typically, one is loading a configuration to create some runtime component/service as parseServiceXmlConfig is doing. We will come back to the rest of the behavior in parseServiceXmlConfig in the following Manage Non-CDI Service section.

If for some reason you need to parse the config and use it in other build steps in an extension processor, you would need to create an XmlConfigBuildItem to pass the parsed XmlConfig instance around.

If you look at the XmlConfig code you will see that it does carry around the JAXB annotations. If you don’t want these in the runtime image, you could clone the XmlConfig instance into some POJO object graph and then replace XmlConfig with the POJO class. We will do this in Replacing Classes in the Native Image.

2.19.4. Scanning Deployments Using Jandex

If your extension defines annotations or interfaces that mark beans needing to be processed, you can locate these beans using the Jandex API, a Java annotation indexer and offline reflection library. The following TestProcessor#scanForBeans method shows how to find the beans annotated with our @TestAnnotation that also implement the IConfigConsumer interface:

Example Jandex Usage
    static DotName TEST_ANNOTATION = DotName.createSimple(TestAnnotation.class.getName());

    void scanForBeans(TestRecorder recorder, BeanArchiveIndexBuildItem beanArchiveIndex, (1)
            BuildProducer<TestBeanBuildItem> testBeanProducer) {
        IndexView indexView = beanArchiveIndex.getIndex(); (2)
        Collection<AnnotationInstance> testBeans = indexView.getAnnotations(TEST_ANNOTATION); (3)
        for (AnnotationInstance ann : testBeans) {
            ClassInfo beanClassInfo = ann.target().asClass();
            try {
                boolean isConfigConsumer = beanClassInfo.interfaceNames()
                        .anyMatch(dotName -> dotName.equals(DotName.createSimple(IConfigConsumer.class.getName()))); (4)
                if (isConfigConsumer) {
                    Class<IConfigConsumer> beanClass = (Class<IConfigConsumer>) Class.forName(beanClassInfo.name().toString(), false, Thread.currentThread().getContextClassLoader());
                    testBeanProducer.produce(new TestBeanBuildItem(beanClass)); (5)
                    log.infof("Configured bean: %s", beanClass);
            } catch (ClassNotFoundException e) {
                log.warn("Failed to load bean class", e);
1 Depend on a BeanArchiveIndexBuildItem to have the build step be run after the deployment has been indexed.
2 Retrieve the index.
3 Find all beans annotated with @TestAnnotation.
4 Determine which of these beans also has the IConfigConsumer interface.
5 Save the bean class in a TestBeanBuildItem for use in a latter RUNTIME_INIT build step that will interact with the bean instances.

2.19.5. Interacting With Extension Beans

You can use the io.quarkus.arc.runtime.BeanContainer interface to interact with your extension beans. The following configureBeans methods illustrate interacting with the beans scanned for in the previous section:

Using CDI BeanContainer Interface
// TestProcessor#configureBeans
    void configureBeans(TestRecorder recorder, List<TestBeanBuildItem> testBeans, (1)
            BeanContainerBuildItem beanContainer, (2)
            TestRunTimeConfig runTimeConfig) {

        for (TestBeanBuildItem testBeanBuildItem : testBeans) {
            Class<IConfigConsumer> beanClass = testBeanBuildItem.getConfigConsumer();
            recorder.configureBeans(beanContainer.getValue(), beanClass, buildAndRunTimeConfig, runTimeConfig); (3)

// TestRecorder#configureBeans
    public void configureBeans(BeanContainer beanContainer, Class<IConfigConsumer> beanClass,
            TestBuildAndRunTimeConfig buildTimeConfig,
            TestRunTimeConfig runTimeConfig) {
        log.info("Begin BeanContainerListener callback\n");
        IConfigConsumer instance = beanContainer.beanInstance(beanClass); (4)
        instance.loadConfig(buildTimeConfig, runTimeConfig); (5)
        log.infof("configureBeans, instance=%s\n", instance);
1 Consume the `TestBeanBuildItem`s produced from the scanning build step.
2 Consume the BeanContainerBuildItem to order this build step to run after the CDI bean container has been created.
3 Call the runtime recorder to record the bean interactions.
4 Runtime recorder retrieves the bean using its type.
5 Runtime recorder invokes the IConfigConsumer#loadConfig(…​) method passing in the configuration objects with runtime information.

2.19.6. Manage Non-CDI Service

A common purpose for an extension is to integrate a non-CDI aware service into the CDI based Quarkus runtime. Step 1 of this task is to load any configuration needed in a STATIC_INIT build step as we did in Parsing Config to Objects. Now we need to create an instance of the service using the configuration. Let’s return to the TestProcessor#parseServiceXmlConfig method to see how this can be done.

Creating a Non-CDI Service
// TestProcessor#parseServiceXmlConfig
    RuntimeServiceBuildItem parseServiceXmlConfig(TestRecorder recorder) throws JAXBException {
        RuntimeServiceBuildItem serviceBuildItem = null;
        JAXBContext context = JAXBContext.newInstance(XmlConfig.class);
        Unmarshaller unmarshaller = context.createUnmarshaller();
        InputStream is = getClass().getResourceAsStream("/config.xml");
        if (is != null) {
            log.info("Have XmlConfig, loading");
            XmlConfig config = (XmlConfig) unmarshaller.unmarshal(is);
            log.info("Loaded XmlConfig, creating service");
            RuntimeValue<RuntimeXmlConfigService> service = recorder.initRuntimeService(config); (1)
            serviceBuildItem = new RuntimeServiceBuildItem(service); (3)
        return serviceBuildItem;

// TestRecorder#initRuntimeService
    public RuntimeValue<RuntimeXmlConfigService> initRuntimeService(XmlConfig config) {
        RuntimeXmlConfigService service = new RuntimeXmlConfigService(config); (2)
        return new RuntimeValue<>(service);

// RuntimeServiceBuildItem
    final public class RuntimeServiceBuildItem extends SimpleBuildItem {
    private RuntimeValue<RuntimeXmlConfigService> service;

    public RuntimeServiceBuildItem(RuntimeValue<RuntimeXmlConfigService> service) {
        this.service = service;

    public RuntimeValue<RuntimeXmlConfigService> getService() {
        return service;
1 Call into the runtime recorder to record the creation of the service.
2 Using the parsed XmlConfig instance, create an instance of RuntimeXmlConfigService and wrap it in a RuntimeValue. Use a RuntimeValue wrapper for non-interface objects that are non-proxiable.
3 Wrap the return service value in a RuntimeServiceBuildItem for use in a RUNTIME_INIT build step that will start the service. Starting a Service

Now that you have recorded the creation of a service during the build phase, you need to record how to start the service at runtime during booting. You do this with a RUNTIME_INIT build step as shown in the TestProcessor#startRuntimeService method.

Starting/Stopping a Non-CDI Service
// TestProcessor#startRuntimeService
    ServiceStartBuildItem startRuntimeService(TestRecorder recorder, ShutdownContextBuildItem shutdownContextBuildItem , (1)
            RuntimeServiceBuildItem serviceBuildItem) throws IOException { (2)
        if (serviceBuildItem != null) {
            log.info("Registering service start");
            recorder.startRuntimeService(shutdownContextBuildItem, serviceBuildItem.getService()); (3)
        } else {
            log.info("No RuntimeServiceBuildItem seen, check config.xml");
        return new ServiceStartBuildItem("RuntimeXmlConfigService"); (4)

// TestRecorder#startRuntimeService
    public void startRuntimeService(ShutdownContext shutdownContext, RuntimeValue<RuntimeXmlConfigService> runtimeValue)
            throws IOException {
        RuntimeXmlConfigService service = runtimeValue.getValue();
        service.startService(); (5)
        shutdownContext.addShutdownTask(service::stopService); (6)
1 We consume a ShutdownContextBuildItem to register the service shutdown.
2 We consume the previously initialized service captured in RuntimeServiceBuildItem.
3 Call the runtime recorder to record the service start invocation.
4 Produce a ServiceStartBuildItem to indicate the startup of a service. See Startup and Shutdown Events for details.
5 Runtime recorder retrieves the service instance reference and calls its startService method.
6 Runtime recorder registers an invocation of the service instance stopService method with the Quarkus ShutdownContext.

The code for the RuntimeXmlConfigService can be viewed here: RuntimeXmlConfigService.java

The testcase for validating that the RuntimeXmlConfigService has started can be found in the testRuntimeXmlConfigService test of ConfiguredBeanTest and NativeImageIT.

2.19.7. Startup and Shutdown Events

The Quarkus container supports startup and shutdown lifecycle events to notify components of the container startup and shutdown. There are CDI events fired that components can observe are illustrated in this example:

Observing Container Startup
import io.quarkus.runtime.ShutdownEvent;
import io.quarkus.runtime.StartupEvent;

public class SomeBean {
     * Called when the runtime has started
     * @param event
    void onStart(@Observes StartupEvent event) { (1)
        System.out.printf("onStart, event=%s%n", event);

     * Called when the runtime is shutting down
     * @param event
    void onStop(@Observes ShutdownEvent event) { (2)
        System.out.printf("onStop, event=%s%n", event);
1 Observe a StartupEvent to be notified the runtime has started.
2 Observe a ShutdownEvent to be notified when the runtime is going to shut down.

What is the relevance of startup and shutdown events for extension authors? We have already seen the use of a ShutdownContext to register a callback to perform shutdown tasks in the Starting a Service section. These shutdown tasks would be called after a ShutdownEvent had been sent.

A StartupEvent is fired after all io.quarkus.deployment.builditem.ServiceStartBuildItem producers have been consumed. The implication of this is that if an extension has services that application components would expect to have been started when they observe a StartupEvent, the build steps that invoke the runtime code to start those services needs to produce a ServiceStartBuildItem to ensure that the runtime code is run before the StartupEvent is sent. Recall that we saw the production of a ServiceStartBuildItem in the previous section, and it is repeated here for clarity:

Example of Producing a ServiceStartBuildItem
// TestProcessor#startRuntimeService
    ServiceStartBuildItem startRuntimeService(TestRecorder recorder, ShutdownContextBuildItem shutdownContextBuildItem,
            RuntimeServiceBuildItem serviceBuildItem) throws IOException {
        return new ServiceStartBuildItem("RuntimeXmlConfigService"); (1)
1 Produce a ServiceStartBuildItem to indicate that this is a service starting step that needs to run before the StartupEvent is sent.

2.19.8. Register Resources for Use in Native Image

Not all configuration or resources can be consumed at build time. If you have classpath resources that the runtime needs to access, you need to inform the build phase that these resources need to be copied into the native image. This is done by producing one or more NativeImageResourceBuildItem or NativeImageResourceBundleBuildItem in the case of resource bundles. Examples of this are shown in this sample registerNativeImageResources build step:

Registering Resources and ResourceBundles
public final class MyExtProcessor {

    void registerNativeImageResources(BuildProducer<NativeImageResourceBuildItem> resource, BuildProducer<NativeImageResourceBundleBuildItem> resourceBundle) {
        resource.produce(new NativeImageResourceBuildItem("/security/runtime.keys")); (1)

        resource.produce(new NativeImageResourceBuildItem(
                "META-INF/my-descriptor.xml")); (2)

        resourceBundle.produce(new NativeImageResourceBuildItem("jakarta.xml.bind.Messages")); (3)
1 Indicate that the /security/runtime.keys classpath resource should be copied into native image.
2 Indicate that the META-INF/my-descriptor.xml resource should be copied into native image
3 Indicate that the "jakarta.xml.bind.Messages" resource bundle should be copied into native image.

2.19.9. Service files

If you are using META-INF/services files you need to register the files as resources so that your native image can find them, but you also need to register each listed class for reflection so they can be instantiated or inspected at run-time:

public final class MyExtProcessor {

    void registerNativeImageResources(BuildProducer<ServiceProviderBuildItem> services) {
        String service = "META-INF/services/" + io.quarkus.SomeService.class.getName();

        // find out all the implementation classes listed in the service files
        Set<String> implementations =

        // register every listed implementation class so they can be instantiated
        // in native-image at run-time
            new ServiceProviderBuildItem(io.quarkus.SomeService.class.getName(),
                                         implementations.toArray(new String[0])));
ServiceProviderBuildItem takes a list of service implementation classes as parameters: if you are not reading them from the service file, make sure that they correspond to the service file contents because the service file will still be read and used at run-time. This is not a substitute for writing a service file.
This only registers the implementation classes for instantiation via reflection (you will not be able to inspect its fields and methods). If you need to do that, you can do it this way:
public final class MyExtProcessor {

    void registerNativeImageResources(BuildProducer<NativeImageResourceBuildItem> resource,
                                     BuildProducer<ReflectiveClassBuildItem> reflectionClasses) {
        String service = "META-INF/services/" + io.quarkus.SomeService.class.getName();

        // register the service file so it is visible in native-image
        resource.produce(new NativeImageResourceBuildItem(service));

        // register every listed implementation class so they can be inspected/instantiated
        // in native-image at run-time
        Set<String> implementations =
            new ReflectiveClassBuildItem(true, true, implementations.toArray(new String[0])));

While this is the easiest way to get your services running natively, it’s less efficient than scanning the implementation classes at build time and generating code that registers them at static-init time instead of relying on reflection.

You can achieve that by adapting the previous build step to use a static-init recorder instead of registering classes for reflection:

public final class MyExtProcessor {

    void registerNativeImageResources(RecorderContext recorderContext,
                                     SomeServiceRecorder recorder) {
        String service = "META-INF/services/" + io.quarkus.SomeService.class.getName();

        // read the implementation classes
        Collection<Class<? extends io.quarkus.SomeService>> implementationClasses = new LinkedHashSet<>();
        Set<String> implementations = ServiceUtil.classNamesNamedIn(Thread.currentThread().getContextClassLoader(),
        for(String implementation : implementations) {
            implementationClasses.add((Class<? extends io.quarkus.SomeService>)

        // produce a static-initializer with those classes

public class SomeServiceRecorder {

    public void configure(List<Class<? extends io.quarkus.SomeService>> implementations) {
        // configure our service statically
        SomeServiceProvider serviceProvider = SomeServiceProvider.instance();
        SomeServiceBuilder builder = serviceProvider.getSomeServiceBuilder();

        List<io.quarkus.SomeService> services = new ArrayList<>(implementations.size());
        // instantiate the service implementations
        for (Class<? extends io.quarkus.SomeService> implementationClass : implementations) {
            try {
            } catch (Exception e) {
                throw new IllegalArgumentException("Unable to instantiate service " + implementationClass, e);

        // build our service
        builder.withSomeServices(implementations.toArray(new io.quarkus.SomeService[0]));
        ServiceManager serviceManager = builder.build();

        // register it
        serviceProvider.registerServiceManager(serviceManager, Thread.currentThread().getContextClassLoader());

2.19.10. Object Substitution

Objects created during the build phase that are passed into the runtime need to have a default constructor in order for them to be created and configured at startup of the runtime from the build time state. If an object does not have a default constructor you will see an error similar to the following during generation of the augmented artifacts:

DSAPublicKey Serialization Error
	[error]: Build step io.quarkus.deployment.steps.MainClassBuildStep#build threw an exception: java.lang.RuntimeException: Unable to serialize objects of type class sun.security.provider.DSAPublicKeyImpl to bytecode as it has no default constructor
	at io.quarkus.builder.Execution.run(Execution.java:123)
	at io.quarkus.builder.BuildExecutionBuilder.execute(BuildExecutionBuilder.java:136)
	at io.quarkus.deployment.QuarkusAugmentor.run(QuarkusAugmentor.java:110)
	at io.quarkus.runner.RuntimeRunner.run(RuntimeRunner.java:99)
	... 36 more

There is a io.quarkus.runtime.ObjectSubstitution interface that can be implemented to tell Quarkus how to handle such classes. An example implementation for the DSAPublicKey is shown here:

DSAPublicKeyObjectSubstitution Example
package io.quarkus.extest.runtime.subst;

import java.security.KeyFactory;
import java.security.NoSuchAlgorithmException;
import java.security.interfaces.DSAPublicKey;
import java.security.spec.InvalidKeySpecException;
import java.security.spec.X509EncodedKeySpec;
import java.util.logging.Logger;

import io.quarkus.runtime.ObjectSubstitution;

public class DSAPublicKeyObjectSubstitution implements ObjectSubstitution<DSAPublicKey, KeyProxy> {
    private static final Logger log = Logger.getLogger("DSAPublicKeyObjectSubstitution");
    public KeyProxy serialize(DSAPublicKey obj) { (1)
        byte[] encoded = obj.getEncoded();
        KeyProxy proxy = new KeyProxy();
        return proxy;

    public DSAPublicKey deserialize(KeyProxy obj) { (2)
        byte[] encoded = obj.getContent();
        X509EncodedKeySpec publicKeySpec = new X509EncodedKeySpec(encoded);
        DSAPublicKey dsaPublicKey = null;
        try {
            KeyFactory kf = KeyFactory.getInstance("DSA");
            dsaPublicKey = (DSAPublicKey) kf.generatePublic(publicKeySpec);

        } catch (NoSuchAlgorithmException | InvalidKeySpecException e) {
        return dsaPublicKey;
1 The serialize method takes the object without a default constructor and creates a KeyProxy that contains the information necessary to recreate the DSAPublicKey.
2 The deserialize method uses the KeyProxy to recreate the DSAPublicKey from its encoded form using the key factory.

An extension registers this substitution by producing an ObjectSubstitutionBuildItem as shown in this TestProcessor#loadDSAPublicKey fragment:

Registering an Object Substitution
    PublicKeyBuildItem loadDSAPublicKey(TestRecorder recorder,
            BuildProducer<ObjectSubstitutionBuildItem> substitutions) throws IOException, GeneralSecurityException {
        // Register how to serialize DSAPublicKey
        ObjectSubstitutionBuildItem.Holder<DSAPublicKey, KeyProxy> holder = new ObjectSubstitutionBuildItem.Holder(
                DSAPublicKey.class, KeyProxy.class, DSAPublicKeyObjectSubstitution.class);
        ObjectSubstitutionBuildItem keysub = new ObjectSubstitutionBuildItem(holder);

        log.info("loadDSAPublicKey run");
        return new PublicKeyBuildItem(publicKey);

2.19.11. Replacing Classes in the Native Image

The Graal SDK supports substitutions of classes in the native image. An example of how one could replace the XmlConfig/XmlData classes with versions that have no JAXB annotation dependencies is shown in these example classes:

Substitution of XmlConfig/XmlData Classes Example
package io.quarkus.extest.runtime.graal;
import java.util.Date;
import com.oracle.svm.core.annotate.Substitute;
import com.oracle.svm.core.annotate.TargetClass;
import io.quarkus.extest.runtime.config.XmlData;

public final class Target_XmlConfig {

    private String address;
    private int port;
    private ArrayList<XData> dataList;

    public String getAddress() {
        return address;

    public int getPort() {
        return port;

    public ArrayList<XData> getDataList() {
        return dataList;

    public String toString() {
        return "Target_XmlConfig{" +
                "address='" + address + '\'' +
                ", port=" + port +
                ", dataList=" + dataList +

public final class Target_XmlData {

    private String name;
    private String model;
    private Date date;

    public String getName() {
        return name;

    public String getModel() {
        return model;

    public Date getDate() {
        return date;

    public String toString() {
        return "Target_XmlData{" +
                "name='" + name + '\'' +
                ", model='" + model + '\'' +
                ", date='" + date + '\'' +

3. Ecosystem integration

Some extensions may be private, and some may wish to be part of the broader Quarkus ecosystem, and available for community re-use. Inclusion in the Quarkiverse Hub is a convenient mechanism for handling continuous testing and publication. The Quarkiverse Hub wiki has instructions for on-boarding your extension.

Alternatively, continuous testing and publication can be handled manually.

3.1. Continuous testing of your extension

In order to make it easy for extension authors to test their extensions daily against the latest snapshot of Quarkus, Quarkus has introduced the notion of Ecosystem CI. The Ecosystem CI README has all the details on how to set up a GitHub Actions job to take advantage of this capability, while this video provides an overview of what the process looks like.

3.2. Publish your extension in registry.quarkus.io

Before publishing your extension to the Quarkus tooling, make sure that the following requirements are met:

  • The quarkus-extension.yaml file (in the extension’s runtime/ module) has the minimum metadata set:

    • name

    • description (unless you have it already set in the runtime/pom.xml's <description> element, which is the recommended approach)

  • Your extension is published in Maven Central

  • Your extension repository is configured to use the Ecosystem CI.

Then you must create a pull request adding a your-extension.yaml file in the extensions/ directory in the Quarkus Extension Catalog. The YAML must have the following structure:

When your repository contains multiple extensions, you need to create a separate file for each individual extension, not just one file for the entire repository.

That’s all. Once the pull request is merged, a scheduled job will check Maven Central for new versions and update the Quarkus Extension Registry.

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