Quarkus - Funqy Knative Events Binding

Quarkus Funqy Knative Events builds off of the Funqy HTTP extension to allow you to route and process Knative Events within a Funqy function.

The guide walks through quickstart code to show you how you can deploy and invoke on Funqy functions with Knative Events.


To complete this guide, you need:

Setting up Knative

Setting up Knative locally in a Minikube environment is beyond the scope of this guide. It is advised to follow this Knative Tutorial put together by Red Hat. It walks through how to set up Knative on Minikube or Openshift in a local environment.

Specifically you should run the Brokers and Triggers tutorial as this guide requires that you can invoke on a Broker to trigger the quickstart code.

Read about Cloud Events

The Cloud Event specification is a good read to give you an even greater understanding of Knative Events.

The Quickstart

Clone the Git repository: git clone https://github.com/quarkusio/quarkus-quickstarts.git, or download an archive.

The solution is located in the funqy-knative-events-quickstart directory.

The Quickstart Flow

The quickstart works by manually sending an HTTP request containing a Cloud Event to the Knative Broker using curl. The Knative Broker receives the request and triggers the startup of the Funqy container built by the quickstart. The event triggers the invocation of a chain of Funqy functions. The output of one function triggers the invocation of another Funqy function.

Funqy and Cloud Events

When living within a Knative Events environment, Funqy functions are triggered by a specific Cloud Event type. You can have multiple Funqy functions within a single application/deployment, but they must be triggered by a specific Cloud Event Type. The exception to this rule is if there is only one Funqy function in the application. In that case, the event is pushed to that function irregardless of the Cloud Event type.

Currently, Funqy can only consume JSON-based data. It supports both Binary and Structured mode of execution, but the data component of the Cloud Event message must be JSON. This JSON must also be marshallable to and from the Java parameters and return types of your functions.

The Code

Let’s start looking at our quickstart code so that you can understand how Knative Events map to Funqy. Open up SimpleFunctionChain.java

The first function we’ll look at is defaultChain.

import io.quarkus.funqy.Funq;

public class SimpleFunctionChain {
    public String defaultChain(String input) {
        log.info("*** defaultChain ***");
        return input + "::" + "defaultChain";

As is, a Funqy function has a default Cloud Event mapping. By default, the Cloud Event type must match the function name for the function to trigger. If the function returns output, the response is converted into a Cloud Event and returned to the Broker to be routed to other triggers. The default Cloud Event type for this response is the function name + .output. The default Cloud Event source is the function name.

So, for the defaultChain function, the Cloud Event type that triggers the function is defaultChain. It generates a response that triggers a new Cloud Event whose type is defaultChain.output and the event source is defaultChain.

While the default mapping is simple, it might not always be feasible. You can change this default mapping through configuration. Let’s look at the next function:

import io.quarkus.funqy.Funq;

public class SimpleFunctionChain {
    public String configChain(String input) {
        log.info("*** configChain ***");
        return input + "::" + "configChain";

The configChain function has its Cloud Event mapping changed by configuration within application.properties.


In this case, the configuration maps the incoming Cloud Event type defaultChain.output to the configChain function. The configChain function maps its response to the annotated Cloud Event type, and the Cloud Event source configChain.

  • quarkus.funqy.knative-events.mapping.{function name}.trigger sets the Cloud Event type that triggers a specific function

  • quarkus.funqy.knative-events.mapping.{function name}.response-type sets the Cloud Event type of the response

  • quarkus.funqy.knative-events.mapping.{function name}.resource-source sets the Cloud Event source of the response

The Funqy Knative Events extension also has annotations to do this Cloud Event mapping to your functions. Take a look at the annotatedChain method

import io.quarkus.funqy.Funq;
import io.quarkus.funqy.knative.events.CloudEventMapping;

public class SimpleFunctionChain {
    @CloudEventMapping(trigger = "annotated", responseSource = "annotated", responseType = "lastChainLink")
    public String annotatedChain(String input) {
        log.info("*** annotatedChain ***");
        return input + "::" + "annotatedChain";

If you use the @CloudEventMapping annotation on your function you can map the Cloud Event type trigger and the Cloud Event response. In this example the annotatedChain function will be triggered by the annotated Cloud Event type and the response will be mapped to a lastChainLink type and annotated Cloud Event source.

So, if look at all the functions defined within SimpleFunctionChain you’ll notice that one function triggers the next. The last function that is triggered is lastChainLink.

import io.quarkus.funqy.Context;
import io.quarkus.funqy.Funq;

public class SimpleFunctionChain {
    public void lastChainLink(String input, @Context CloudEvent event) {
        log.info("*** lastChainLink ***");
        log.info(input + "::" + "lastChainLink");

There are two things to notice about this function. One, it has no output. Your functions are not required to return output. Second, there is an additional event parameter to the function.

If you want to know additional information about the incoming Cloud Event, you can inject the CloudEvent interface using the Funqy @Context annotation. The CloudEvent interface exposes information about the triggering event.

public interface CloudEvent {
    String id();
    String specVersion();
    String source();
    String subject();
    OffsetDateTime time();


If you look at the pom, you’ll see that it is a typical Quarkus pom that pulls in one funqy dependency


Dev mode and Testing

Funqy Knative Events support dev mode and unit testing using RestAssured. You can invoke on Funqy Knative Events functions using the same invocation model as Funqy HTTP using normal HTTP requests, or Cloud Event Binary mode, or Structured Mode. All invocation modes are supported at the same time.

So, if you open up the unit test code in FunqyTest.java you’ll see that its simply using RestAssured to make HTTP invocations to test the functions.

Funqy also works with Quarkus Dev mode!

Build the Project

First build the Java artifacts:

mvn clean install

Next, a docker image is required by Knative, so you’ll need to build that next:

docker build -f src/main/docker/Dockerfile.jvm -t yourAccountName/funqy-knative-events-quickstart .

Make sure to replace yourAccountName with your docker or quay account name when you run docker build. The Dockerfile is a standard Quarkus dockerfile. No special Knative magic.

Push your image to docker hub or quay

docker push yourAccountName/funqy-knative-events-quickstart

Again, make sure to replace yourAccountName with your docker or quay account name when you run docker push.

Deploy to Kubernetes/Openshift

The first step is to define a Kubernetes/Openshift service to points to your the docker image you created and pushed during build. Take a look at funqy-service.yaml

apiVersion: serving.knative.dev/v1
kind: Service
  name: funqy-knative-events-quickstart
      name: funqy-knative-events-quickstart-v1
        autoscaling.knative.dev/target: "1"
        - image: docker.io/yourAccountName/funqy-knative-events-quickstart

This is a standard Kubernetes service definition yaml file.

Make sure you change the image url to point to the image you built and pushed earlier!

For our quickstart, one Kubernetes service will contain all functions. There’s no reason you couldn’t break up this quickstart into multiple different projects and deploy a service for each function. For simplicity, and to show that you don’t have to have a deployment per function, the quickstart combines everything into one project, image, and service.

Deploy the service yaml.

kubectl apply -n knativetutorial -f src/main/k8s/funqy-service.yaml

The next step is to deploy Knative Event triggers for each of the event types. As noted in the code section, each Funqy function is mapped to a specific Cloud Event type. You must create Knative Event triggers that map a Cloud Event and route it to a specific Kubernetes service. We have 4 different triggers.

apiVersion: eventing.knative.dev/v1alpha1
kind: Trigger
  name: defaultchain
      type: defaultChain
      apiVersion: serving.knative.dev/v1
      kind: Service
      name: funqy-knative-events-quickstart

The spec:filter:attributes:type maps a Cloud Event type to the Kubernetes service defined in spec:subscriber:ref. When a Cloud Event is pushed to the Broker, it will trigger the spin up of the service mapped to that event.

There’s a trigger yaml file for each of our 4 Funqy functions. Deploy them all:

kubectl apply -n knativetutorial -f src/main/k8s/defaultChain-trigger.yaml
kubectl apply -n knativetutorial -f src/main/k8s/configChain-trigger.yaml
kubectl apply -n knativetutorial -f src/main/k8s/annoatedChain-trigger.yaml
kubectl apply -n knativetutorial -f src/main/k8s/lastChainLink-trigger.yaml

Run the demo

You’ll need two different terminal windows. One to do a curl request to the Broker, the other to watch the pod log files so you can see the messages flowing through the Funqy function event chain.

Make sure you have the stern tool installed. See the Knative Tutorial setup for information on that. Run stern to look for logs outputed by our Funqy deployment

stern funq user-container

Open a separate terminal. You’ll first need to learn the URL of the broker. Execute this command to find it.

kubectl get broker default -o jsonpath='{.status.address.url}'

This will provide you a url like this (exactly like this if you followed the knative tutorial): http://default-broker.knativetutorial.svc.cluster.local Remember this URL.

Next thing we need to do is ssh into our Kubernetes cluster so that we can send a curl request to our broker.

kubectl -n knativetutorial exec -it curler -- /bin/bash

You will now be in a shell within the Kubernetes cluster. Within the shell, execute this curl command

curl -v "http://default-broker.knativetutorial.svc.cluster.local" \
-H "Ce-Id: 1234" \
-H "Ce-Specversion: 1.0" \
-H "Ce-Type: defaultChain" \
-H "Ce-Source: curl" \
-H "Content-Type: application/json" \
-d '"Start"'

This posts a Knative Event to the broker, which will trigger the defaultChain function. As discussed earlier, the output of defaultChain triggers an event that is posted to configChain which triggers an event posted to annotatedChain then finally to the lastChainLink function. You can see this flow in your stern window. Something like this should be outputted.

funqy-knative-events-quickstart-v1-deployment-59bb88bcf4-9jwdx user-container 2020-05-12 13:44:02,256 INFO  [org.acm.fun.SimpleFunctionChain] (executor-thread-1) *** defaultChain ***
funqy-knative-events-quickstart-v1-deployment-59bb88bcf4-9jwdx user-container 2020-05-12 13:44:02,365 INFO  [org.acm.fun.SimpleFunctionChain] (executor-thread-2) *** configChain ***
funqy-knative-events-quickstart-v1-deployment-59bb88bcf4-9jwdx user-container 2020-05-12 13:44:02,394 INFO  [org.acm.fun.SimpleFunctionChain] (executor-thread-1) *** annotatedChain ***
funqy-knative-events-quickstart-v1-deployment-59bb88bcf4-9jwdx user-container 2020-05-12 13:44:02,466 INFO  [org.acm.fun.SimpleFunctionChain] (executor-thread-2) *** lastChainLink ***
funqy-knative-events-quickstart-v1-deployment-59bb88bcf4-9jwdx user-container 2020-05-12 13:44:02,467 INFO  [org.acm.fun.SimpleFunctionChain] (executor-thread-2) Start::defaultChain::configChain::annotatedChain::lastChainLink