Quarkus - Using OpenID Connect to Protect Service Applications using Bearer Token Authorization

This guide demonstrates how to use Quarkus OpenID Connect Extension to protect your JAX-RS applications using Bearer Token Authorization where Bearer Tokens are issued by OpenId Connect and OAuth 2.0 compliant Authorization Servers such as Keycloak.

Bearer Token Authorization is the process of authorizing HTTP requests based on the existence and validity of a Bearer Token which provides valuable information to determine the subject of the call as well as whether or not an HTTP resource can be accessed.

Please read the Using OpenID Connect to Protect Web Applications guide if you need to authenticate and authorize the users using OpenId Connect Authorization Code Flow.

If you use Keycloak and Bearer tokens then also see the Using Keycloak to Centralize Authorization guide.

Please read the Using OpenID Connect Multi-Tenancy guide how to support multiple tenants.

Prerequisites

To complete this guide, you need:

  • less than 15 minutes

  • an IDE

  • JDK 1.8+ installed with JAVA_HOME configured appropriately

  • Apache Maven 3.6.2+

  • jq tool

  • Docker

Architecture

In this example, we build a very simple microservice which offers three endpoints:

  • /api/users/me

  • /api/admin

These endpoints are protected and can only be accessed if a client is sending a bearer token along with the request, which must be valid (e.g.: signature, expiration and audience) and trusted by the microservice.

The bearer token is issued by a Keycloak Server and represents the subject to which the token was issued for. For being an OAuth 2.0 Authorization Server, the token also references the client acting on behalf of the user.

The /api/users/me endpoint can be accessed by any user with a valid token. As a response, it returns a JSON document with details about the user where these details are obtained from the information carried on the token.

The /api/admin endpoint is protected with RBAC (Role-Based Access Control) where only users granted with the admin role can access. At this endpoint, we use the @RolesAllowed annotation to declaratively enforce the access constraint.

Solution

We recommend that you follow the instructions in the next sections and create the application step by step. However, you can go right to the completed example.

Clone the Git repository: git clone https://github.com/quarkusio/quarkus-quickstarts.git, or download an archive.

The solution is located in the security-openid-connect-quickstart directory.

Creating the Maven Project

First, we need a new project. Create a new project with the following command:

mvn io.quarkus:quarkus-maven-plugin:1.13.4.Final:create \
    -DprojectGroupId=org.acme \
    -DprojectArtifactId=security-openid-connect-quickstart \
    -Dextensions="resteasy,oidc,resteasy-jackson" \
    -DnoExamples
cd security-openid-connect-quickstart

This command generates a Maven project, importing the keycloak extension which is an implementation of a Keycloak Adapter for Quarkus applications and provides all the necessary capabilities to integrate with a Keycloak Server and perform bearer token authorization.

If you already have your Quarkus project configured, you can add the oidc extension to your project by running the following command in your project base directory:

./mvnw quarkus:add-extension -Dextensions="oidc"

This will add the following to your pom.xml:

<dependency>
    <groupId>io.quarkus</groupId>
    <artifactId>quarkus-oidc</artifactId>
</dependency>

Writing the application

Let’s start by implementing the /api/users/me endpoint. As you can see from the source code below it is just a regular JAX-RS resource:

package org.acme.security.openid.connect;

import javax.annotation.security.RolesAllowed;
import javax.inject.Inject;
import javax.ws.rs.GET;
import javax.ws.rs.Path;

import org.jboss.resteasy.annotations.cache.NoCache;
import io.quarkus.security.identity.SecurityIdentity;

@Path("/api/users")
public class UsersResource {

    @Inject
    SecurityIdentity securityIdentity;

    @GET
    @Path("/me")
    @RolesAllowed("user")
    @NoCache
    public User me() {
        return new User(securityIdentity);
    }

    public static class User {

        private final String userName;

        User(SecurityIdentity securityIdentity) {
            this.userName = securityIdentity.getPrincipal().getName();
        }

        public String getUserName() {
            return userName;
        }
    }
}

The source code for the /api/admin endpoint is also very simple. The main difference here is that we are using a @RolesAllowed annotation to make sure that only users granted with the admin role can access the endpoint:

package org.acme.security.openid.connect;

import javax.annotation.security.RolesAllowed;
import javax.ws.rs.GET;
import javax.ws.rs.Path;
import javax.ws.rs.Produces;
import javax.ws.rs.core.MediaType;

@Path("/api/admin")
public class AdminResource {

    @GET
    @RolesAllowed("admin")
    @Produces(MediaType.TEXT_PLAIN)
    public String admin() {
        return "granted";
    }
}

Injection of the SecurityIdentity is supported in both @RequestScoped and @ApplicationScoped contexts.

Accessing JWT claims

If you need to access JsonWebToken claims, you may simply inject the token itself:

package org.acme.security.openid.connect;

import org.eclipse.microprofile.jwt.JsonWebToken;
import javax.inject.Inject;
import javax.annotation.security.RolesAllowed;
import javax.ws.rs.GET;
import javax.ws.rs.Path;
import javax.ws.rs.Produces;
import javax.ws.rs.core.MediaType;

@Path("/api/admin")
public class AdminResource {

    @Inject
    JsonWebToken jwt;

    @GET
    @RolesAllowed("admin")
    @Produces(MediaType.TEXT_PLAIN)
    public String admin() {
        return "Access for subject " + jwt.getSubject() + " is granted";
    }
}

Injection of the JsonWebToken is supported in both @RequestScoped and @ApplicationScoped contexts.

Configuring the application

The OpenID Connect extension allows you to define the adapter configuration using the application.properties file which should be located at the src/main/resources directory.

Configuring using the application.properties file

Configuration property fixed at build time - All other configuration properties are overridable at runtime

Configuration property

Type

Default

If the OIDC extension is enabled.

boolean

true

The base URL of the OpenID Connect (OIDC) server, for example, https://host:port/auth. OIDC discovery endpoint will be called by default by appending a '.well-known/openid-configuration' path to this URL. Note if you work with Keycloak OIDC server, make sure the base URL is in the following format: https://host:port/auth/realms/{realm} where {realm} has to be replaced by the name of the Keycloak realm.

string

Enables OIDC discovery. If the discovery is disabled then the 'token-path' property must be configured.

boolean

true

Relative path of the OIDC token endpoint which issues access and refresh tokens using either 'client_credentials' or 'password' grants

string

The client-id of the application. Each application has a client-id that is used to identify the application

string

The maximum amount of time connecting to the currently unavailable OIDC server will be attempted for. The number of times the connection request will be repeated is calculated by dividing the value of this property by 2. For example, setting it to 20S will allow for requesting the connection up to 10 times with a 2 seconds delay between the retries. Note the connection-timeout property does not affect this amount of time.

Duration

The amount of time after which the connection request to the currently unavailable OIDC server will time out.

Duration

10S

Client secret which is used for a client_secret_basic authentication method. Note that a 'client-secret.value' can be used instead but both properties are mutually exclusive.

string

string

basic, post

If provided, indicates that JWT is signed using a secret key

string

If provided, indicates that JWT is signed using a private key in PEM or JWK format

string

If provided, indicates that JWT is signed using a private key from a key store

string

A parameter to specify the password of the key store file. If not given, the default ("password") is used.

string

password

The private key id/alias

string

string

password

JWT life-span in seconds. It will be added to the time it was issued at to calculate the expiration time.

int

10

The host (name or IP address) of the Proxy. Note: If OIDC adapter needs to use a Proxy to talk with OIDC server (Provider), then at least the "host" config item must be configured to enable the usage of a Proxy.

string

The port number of the Proxy. Default value is 80.

int

80

The username, if Proxy needs authentication.

string

The password, if Proxy needs authentication.

string

Certificate validation and hostname verification, which can be one of the following values from enum Verification. Default is required.

required, none

A unique tenant identifier. It must be set by TenantConfigResolver providers which resolve the tenant configuration dynamically and is optional in all other cases.

string

If this tenant configuration is enabled.

boolean

true

The application type, which can be one of the following values from enum ApplicationType.

web-app, service, hybrid

service

Relative path of the OIDC authorization endpoint which authenticates the users. This property must be set for the 'web-app' applications if OIDC discovery is disabled. This property will be ignored if the discovery is enabled.

string

Relative path of the OIDC userinfo endpoint. This property must only be set for the 'web-app' applications if OIDC discovery is disabled and 'authentication.user-info-required' property is enabled. This property will be ignored if the discovery is enabled.

string

Relative path of the OIDC RFC7662 introspection endpoint which can introspect both opaque and JWT tokens. This property must be set if OIDC discovery is disabled and 1) the opaque bearer access tokens have to be verified or 2) JWT tokens have to be verified while the cached JWK verification set with no matching JWK is being refreshed. This property will be ignored if the discovery is enabled.

string

Relative path of the OIDC JWKS endpoint which returns a JSON Web Key Verification Set. This property should be set if OIDC discovery is disabled and the local JWT verification is required. This property will be ignored if the discovery is enabled.

string

Relative path of the OIDC end_session_endpoint. This property must be set if OIDC discovery is disabled and RP Initiated Logout support for the 'web-app' applications is required. This property will be ignored if the discovery is enabled.

string

Public key for the local JWT token verification. OIDC server connection will not be created when this property is set.

string

Path to the claim containing an array of groups. It starts from the top level JWT JSON object and can contain multiple segments where each segment represents a JSON object name only, example: "realm/groups". Use double quotes with the namespace qualified claim names. This property can be used if a token has no 'groups' claim but has the groups set in a different claim.

string

Separator for splitting a string which may contain multiple group values. It will only be used if the "role-claim-path" property points to a custom claim whose value is a string. A single space will be used by default because the standard 'scope' claim may contain a space separated sequence.

string

Source of the principal roles.

idtoken, accesstoken, userinfo

Expected issuer 'iss' claim value. Note this property overrides the issuer property which may be set in OpenId Connect provider’s well-known configuration. If the iss claim value varies depending on the host/IP address or tenant id of the provider then you may skip the issuer verification by setting this property to 'any' but it should be done only when other options (such as configuring the provider to use the fixed iss claim value) are not possible.

string

Expected audience 'aud' claim value which may be a string or an array of strings.

list of string

Expected token type

string

Life span grace period in seconds. When checking token expiry, current time is allowed to be later than token expiration time by at most the configured number of seconds. When checking token issuance, current time is allowed to be sooner than token issue time by at most the configured number of seconds.

int

Name of the claim which contains a principal name. By default, the 'upn', 'preferred_username' and sub claims are checked.

string

Refresh expired ID tokens. If this property is enabled then a refresh token request will be performed if the ID token has expired and, if successful, the local session will be updated with the new set of tokens. Otherwise, the local session will be invalidated and the user redirected to the OpenID Provider to re-authenticate. In this case the user may not be challenged again if the OIDC provider session is still active. For this option be effective the authentication.session-age-extension property should also be set to a non-zero value since the refresh token is currently kept in the user session. This option is valid only when the application is of type ApplicationType#WEB_APP}.

boolean

false

Refresh token time skew in seconds. If this property is enabled then the configured number of seconds is added to the current time when checking whether the access token should be refreshed. If the sum is greater than this access token’s expiration time then a refresh is going to happen. This property will be ignored if the 'refresh-expired' property is not enabled.

Duration

Forced JWK set refresh interval in minutes.

Duration

10M

Custom HTTP header that contains a bearer token. This option is valid only when the application is of type ApplicationType#SERVICE}.

string

Allow the remote introspection of JWT tokens when no matching JWK key is available. Note this property is set to 'true' by default for backward-compatibility reasons and will be set to false instead in one of the next releases. Also note this property will be ignored if JWK endpoint URI is not available and introspecting the tokens is the only verification option.

boolean

true

The relative path of the logout endpoint at the application. If provided, the application is able to initiate the logout through this endpoint in conformance with the OpenID Connect RP-Initiated Logout specification.

string

Relative path of the application endpoint where the user should be redirected to after logging out from the OpenID Connect Provider. This endpoint URI must be properly registered at the OpenID Connect Provider as a valid redirect URI.

string

Relative path for calculating a "redirect_uri" query parameter. It has to start from a forward slash and will be appended to the request URI’s host and port. For example, if the current request URI is 'https://localhost:8080/service' then a 'redirect_uri' parameter will be set to 'https://localhost:8080/' if this property is set to '/' and be the same as the request URI if this property has not been configured. Note the original request URI will be restored after the user has authenticated if 'restorePathAfterRedirect' is set to 'true'.

string

If this property is set to 'true' then the original request URI which was used before the authentication will be restored after the user has been redirected back to the application. Note if redirectPath property is not set the the original request URI will be restored even if this property is disabled.

boolean

false

Remove the query parameters such as 'code' and 'state' set by the OIDC server on the redirect URI after the user has authenticated by redirecting a user to the same URI but without the query parameters.

boolean

true

Both ID and access tokens are fetched from the OIDC provider as part of the authorization code flow. ID token is always verified on every user request as the primary token which is used to represent the principal and extract the roles. Access token is not verified by default since it is meant to be propagated to the downstream services. The verification of the access token should be enabled if it is injected as a JWT token. Access tokens obtained as part of the code flow will always be verified if quarkus.oidc.roles.source property is set to accesstoken which means the authorization decision will be based on the roles extracted from the access token. Bearer access tokens are always verified.

boolean

false

Force 'https' as the 'redirect_uri' parameter scheme when running behind an SSL terminating reverse proxy. This property, if enabled, will also affect the logout post_logout_redirect_uri and the local redirect requests.

boolean

false

list of string

If enabled the state, session and post logout cookies will have their 'secure' parameter set to 'true' when HTTP is used. It may be necessary when running behind an SSL terminating reverse proxy. The cookies will always be secure if HTTPS is used even if this property is set to false.

boolean

false

Cookie path parameter value which, if set, will be used to set a path parameter for the session, state and post logout cookies. The cookie-path-header property, if set, will be checked first.

string

/

Cookie path header parameter value which, if set, identifies the incoming HTTP header whose value will be used to set a path parameter for the session, state and post logout cookies. If the header is missing then the cookie-path property will be checked.

string

Cookie domain parameter value which, if set, will be used for the session, state and post logout cookies.

string

If this property is set to 'true' then an OIDC UserInfo endpoint will be called

boolean

false

Session age extension in minutes. The user session age property is set to the value of the ID token life-span by default and the user will be redirected to the OIDC provider to re-authenticate once the session has expired. If this property is set to a non-zero value then the expired ID token can be refreshed before the session has expired. This property will be ignored if the token.refresh-expired property has not been enabled.

Duration

5M

If this property is set to 'true' then a normal 302 redirect response will be returned if the request was initiated via JavaScript API such as XMLHttpRequest or Fetch and the current user needs to be (re)authenticated which may not be desirable for Single Page Applications since it automatically following the redirect may not work given that OIDC authorization endpoints typically do not support CORS. If this property is set to false then a status code of '499' will be returned to allow the client to handle the redirect manually

boolean

true

Default TokenStateManager strategy.

keep-all-tokens, id-token, id-refresh-tokens

keep-all-tokens

Default TokenStateManager keeps all tokens (ID, access and refresh) returned in the authorization code grant response in a single session cookie by default. Enable this property to minimize a session cookie size

boolean

false

Additional properties which will be added as the query parameters to the authentication redirect URI.

Map<String,String>

Additional named tenants

Type

Default

The base URL of the OpenID Connect (OIDC) server, for example, https://host:port/auth. OIDC discovery endpoint will be called by default by appending a '.well-known/openid-configuration' path to this URL. Note if you work with Keycloak OIDC server, make sure the base URL is in the following format: https://host:port/auth/realms/{realm} where {realm} has to be replaced by the name of the Keycloak realm.

string

Enables OIDC discovery. If the discovery is disabled then the 'token-path' property must be configured.

boolean

true

Relative path of the OIDC token endpoint which issues access and refresh tokens using either 'client_credentials' or 'password' grants

string

The client-id of the application. Each application has a client-id that is used to identify the application

string

The maximum amount of time connecting to the currently unavailable OIDC server will be attempted for. The number of times the connection request will be repeated is calculated by dividing the value of this property by 2. For example, setting it to 20S will allow for requesting the connection up to 10 times with a 2 seconds delay between the retries. Note the connection-timeout property does not affect this amount of time.

Duration

The amount of time after which the connection request to the currently unavailable OIDC server will time out.

Duration

10S

Client secret which is used for a client_secret_basic authentication method. Note that a 'client-secret.value' can be used instead but both properties are mutually exclusive.

string

string

basic, post

If provided, indicates that JWT is signed using a secret key

string

If provided, indicates that JWT is signed using a private key in PEM or JWK format

string

If provided, indicates that JWT is signed using a private key from a key store

string

A parameter to specify the password of the key store file. If not given, the default ("password") is used.

string

password

string

string

password

JWT life-span in seconds. It will be added to the time it was issued at to calculate the expiration time.

int

10

The host (name or IP address) of the Proxy. Note: If OIDC adapter needs to use a Proxy to talk with OIDC server (Provider), then at least the "host" config item must be configured to enable the usage of a Proxy.

string

The port number of the Proxy. Default value is 80.

int

80

The username, if Proxy needs authentication.

string

The password, if Proxy needs authentication.

string

Certificate validation and hostname verification, which can be one of the following values from enum Verification. Default is required.

required, none

A unique tenant identifier. It must be set by TenantConfigResolver providers which resolve the tenant configuration dynamically and is optional in all other cases.

string

If this tenant configuration is enabled.

boolean

true

The application type, which can be one of the following values from enum ApplicationType.

web-app, service, hybrid

service

Relative path of the OIDC authorization endpoint which authenticates the users. This property must be set for the 'web-app' applications if OIDC discovery is disabled. This property will be ignored if the discovery is enabled.

string

Relative path of the OIDC userinfo endpoint. This property must only be set for the 'web-app' applications if OIDC discovery is disabled and 'authentication.user-info-required' property is enabled. This property will be ignored if the discovery is enabled.

string

Relative path of the OIDC RFC7662 introspection endpoint which can introspect both opaque and JWT tokens. This property must be set if OIDC discovery is disabled and 1) the opaque bearer access tokens have to be verified or 2) JWT tokens have to be verified while the cached JWK verification set with no matching JWK is being refreshed. This property will be ignored if the discovery is enabled.

string

Relative path of the OIDC JWKS endpoint which returns a JSON Web Key Verification Set. This property should be set if OIDC discovery is disabled and the local JWT verification is required. This property will be ignored if the discovery is enabled.

string

Relative path of the OIDC end_session_endpoint. This property must be set if OIDC discovery is disabled and RP Initiated Logout support for the 'web-app' applications is required. This property will be ignored if the discovery is enabled.

string

Public key for the local JWT token verification. OIDC server connection will not be created when this property is set.

string

Path to the claim containing an array of groups. It starts from the top level JWT JSON object and can contain multiple segments where each segment represents a JSON object name only, example: "realm/groups". Use double quotes with the namespace qualified claim names. This property can be used if a token has no 'groups' claim but has the groups set in a different claim.

string

Separator for splitting a string which may contain multiple group values. It will only be used if the "role-claim-path" property points to a custom claim whose value is a string. A single space will be used by default because the standard 'scope' claim may contain a space separated sequence.

string

Source of the principal roles.

idtoken, accesstoken, userinfo

Expected issuer 'iss' claim value. Note this property overrides the issuer property which may be set in OpenId Connect provider’s well-known configuration. If the iss claim value varies depending on the host/IP address or tenant id of the provider then you may skip the issuer verification by setting this property to 'any' but it should be done only when other options (such as configuring the provider to use the fixed iss claim value) are not possible.

string

Expected audience 'aud' claim value which may be a string or an array of strings.

list of string

string

Life span grace period in seconds. When checking token expiry, current time is allowed to be later than token expiration time by at most the configured number of seconds. When checking token issuance, current time is allowed to be sooner than token issue time by at most the configured number of seconds.

int

Name of the claim which contains a principal name. By default, the 'upn', 'preferred_username' and sub claims are checked.

string

Refresh expired ID tokens. If this property is enabled then a refresh token request will be performed if the ID token has expired and, if successful, the local session will be updated with the new set of tokens. Otherwise, the local session will be invalidated and the user redirected to the OpenID Provider to re-authenticate. In this case the user may not be challenged again if the OIDC provider session is still active. For this option be effective the authentication.session-age-extension property should also be set to a non-zero value since the refresh token is currently kept in the user session. This option is valid only when the application is of type ApplicationType#WEB_APP}.

boolean

false

Refresh token time skew in seconds. If this property is enabled then the configured number of seconds is added to the current time when checking whether the access token should be refreshed. If the sum is greater than this access token’s expiration time then a refresh is going to happen. This property will be ignored if the 'refresh-expired' property is not enabled.

Duration

Forced JWK set refresh interval in minutes.

Duration

10M

Custom HTTP header that contains a bearer token. This option is valid only when the application is of type ApplicationType#SERVICE}.

string

Allow the remote introspection of JWT tokens when no matching JWK key is available. Note this property is set to 'true' by default for backward-compatibility reasons and will be set to false instead in one of the next releases. Also note this property will be ignored if JWK endpoint URI is not available and introspecting the tokens is the only verification option.

boolean

true

The relative path of the logout endpoint at the application. If provided, the application is able to initiate the logout through this endpoint in conformance with the OpenID Connect RP-Initiated Logout specification.

string

Relative path of the application endpoint where the user should be redirected to after logging out from the OpenID Connect Provider. This endpoint URI must be properly registered at the OpenID Connect Provider as a valid redirect URI.

string

Relative path for calculating a "redirect_uri" query parameter. It has to start from a forward slash and will be appended to the request URI’s host and port. For example, if the current request URI is 'https://localhost:8080/service' then a 'redirect_uri' parameter will be set to 'https://localhost:8080/' if this property is set to '/' and be the same as the request URI if this property has not been configured. Note the original request URI will be restored after the user has authenticated if 'restorePathAfterRedirect' is set to 'true'.

string

If this property is set to 'true' then the original request URI which was used before the authentication will be restored after the user has been redirected back to the application. Note if redirectPath property is not set the the original request URI will be restored even if this property is disabled.

boolean

false

Remove the query parameters such as 'code' and 'state' set by the OIDC server on the redirect URI after the user has authenticated by redirecting a user to the same URI but without the query parameters.

boolean

true

Both ID and access tokens are fetched from the OIDC provider as part of the authorization code flow. ID token is always verified on every user request as the primary token which is used to represent the principal and extract the roles. Access token is not verified by default since it is meant to be propagated to the downstream services. The verification of the access token should be enabled if it is injected as a JWT token. Access tokens obtained as part of the code flow will always be verified if quarkus.oidc.roles.source property is set to accesstoken which means the authorization decision will be based on the roles extracted from the access token. Bearer access tokens are always verified.

boolean

false

Force 'https' as the 'redirect_uri' parameter scheme when running behind an SSL terminating reverse proxy. This property, if enabled, will also affect the logout post_logout_redirect_uri and the local redirect requests.

boolean

false

list of string

Additional properties which will be added as the query parameters to the authentication redirect URI.

Map<String,String>

If enabled the state, session and post logout cookies will have their 'secure' parameter set to 'true' when HTTP is used. It may be necessary when running behind an SSL terminating reverse proxy. The cookies will always be secure if HTTPS is used even if this property is set to false.

boolean

false

Cookie path parameter value which, if set, will be used to set a path parameter for the session, state and post logout cookies. The cookie-path-header property, if set, will be checked first.

string

/

Cookie path header parameter value which, if set, identifies the incoming HTTP header whose value will be used to set a path parameter for the session, state and post logout cookies. If the header is missing then the cookie-path property will be checked.

string

Cookie domain parameter value which, if set, will be used for the session, state and post logout cookies.

string

If this property is set to 'true' then an OIDC UserInfo endpoint will be called

boolean

false

Session age extension in minutes. The user session age property is set to the value of the ID token life-span by default and the user will be redirected to the OIDC provider to re-authenticate once the session has expired. If this property is set to a non-zero value then the expired ID token can be refreshed before the session has expired. This property will be ignored if the token.refresh-expired property has not been enabled.

Duration

5M

If this property is set to 'true' then a normal 302 redirect response will be returned if the request was initiated via JavaScript API such as XMLHttpRequest or Fetch and the current user needs to be (re)authenticated which may not be desirable for Single Page Applications since it automatically following the redirect may not work given that OIDC authorization endpoints typically do not support CORS. If this property is set to false then a status code of '499' will be returned to allow the client to handle the redirect manually

boolean

true

Default TokenStateManager strategy.

keep-all-tokens, id-token, id-refresh-tokens

keep-all-tokens

Default TokenStateManager keeps all tokens (ID, access and refresh) returned in the authorization code grant response in a single session cookie by default. Enable this property to minimize a session cookie size

boolean

false

About the Duration format

The format for durations uses the standard java.time.Duration format. You can learn more about it in the Duration#parse() javadoc.

You can also provide duration values starting with a number. In this case, if the value consists only of a number, the converter treats the value as seconds. Otherwise, PT is implicitly prepended to the value to obtain a standard java.time.Duration format.

Example configuration:

quarkus.oidc.auth-server-url=http://localhost:8180/auth/realms/quarkus
quarkus.oidc.client-id=backend-service

Configuring CORS

If you plan to consume this application from another application running on a different domain, you will need to configure CORS (Cross-Origin Resource Sharing). Please read the HTTP CORS documentation for more details.

Starting and Configuring the Keycloak Server

To start a Keycloak Server you can use Docker and just run the following command:

docker run --name keycloak -e KEYCLOAK_USER=admin -e KEYCLOAK_PASSWORD=admin -p 8180:8080 {keycloak-docker-image}

You should be able to access your Keycloak Server at localhost:8180/auth.

Log in as the admin user to access the Keycloak Administration Console. Username should be admin and password admin.

Import the realm configuration file to create a new realm. For more details, see the Keycloak documentation about how to create a new realm.

If you want to use the Keycloak Admin Client to configure your server from your application you need to include the quarkus-keycloak-admin-client extension.

Running and Using the Application

Running in Developer Mode

To run the microservice in dev mode, use ./mvnw clean compile quarkus:dev.

Running in JVM Mode

When you’re done playing with "dev-mode" you can run it as a standard Java application.

First compile it:

./mvnw package

Then run it:

java -jar target/quarkus-app/quarkus-run.jar

Running in Native Mode

This same demo can be compiled into native code: no modifications required.

This implies that you no longer need to install a JVM on your production environment, as the runtime technology is included in the produced binary, and optimized to run with minimal resource overhead.

Compilation will take a bit longer, so this step is disabled by default; let’s build again by enabling the native profile:

./mvnw package -Pnative

After getting a cup of coffee, you’ll be able to run this binary directly:

./target/security-openid-connect-quickstart-runner

Testing the Application

The application is using bearer token authorization and the first thing to do is obtain an access token from the Keycloak Server in order to access the application resources:

export access_token=$(\
    curl -X POST http://localhost:8180/auth/realms/quarkus/protocol/openid-connect/token \
    --user backend-service:secret \
    -H 'content-type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded' \
    -d 'username=alice&password=alice&grant_type=password' | jq --raw-output '.access_token' \
 )

The example above obtains an access token for user alice.

Any user is allowed to access the http://localhost:8080/api/users/me endpoint which basically returns a JSON payload with details about the user.

curl -v -X GET \
  http://localhost:8080/api/users/me \
  -H "Authorization: Bearer "$access_token

The http://localhost:8080/api/admin endpoint can only be accessed by users with the admin role. If you try to access this endpoint with the previously issued access token, you should get a 403 response from the server.

curl -v -X GET \
   http://localhost:8080/api/admin \
   -H "Authorization: Bearer "$access_token

In order to access the admin endpoint you should obtain a token for the admin user:

export access_token=$(\
    curl -X POST http://localhost:8180/auth/realms/quarkus/protocol/openid-connect/token \
    --user backend-service:secret \
    -H 'content-type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded' \
    -d 'username=admin&password=admin&grant_type=password' | jq --raw-output '.access_token' \
 )

User Info

Set quarkus.oidc.user-info-required=true if a UserInfo JSON object from the OIDC userinfo endpoint has to be requested. A request will be sent to the OpenId Provider UserInfo endpoint and an io.quarkus.oidc.UserInfo (a simple javax.json.JsonObject wrapper) object will be created. io.quarkus.oidc.UserInfo can be either injected or accessed as a SecurityIdentity userinfo attribute.

Configuration Metadata

The discovered OpenId Connect Configuration Metadata is represented by io.quarkus.oidc.OidcConfigurationMetadata and can be either injected or accessed as a SecurityIdentity configuration-metadata attribute.

Token Claims And SecurityIdentity Roles

SecurityIdentity roles can be mapped from the verified JWT access tokens as follows:

  • If quarkus.oidc.roles.role-claim-path property is set and a matching array or string claim is found then the roles are extracted from this claim. For example, customroles, customroles/array, scope, "http://namespace-qualified-custom-claim"/roles, "http://namespace-qualified-roles", etc.

  • If groups claim is available then its value is used

  • If realm_access/roles or resource_access/client_id/roles (where client_id is the value of the quarkus.oidc.client-id property) claim is available then its value is used. This check supports the tokens issued by Keycloak

If the token is opaque (binary) then a scope property from the remote token introspection response will be used.

If UserInfo is the source of the roles then set quarkus.oidc.authentication.user-info-required=true and quarkus.oidc.roles.source=userinfo, and if needed, quarkus.oidc.roles.role-claim-path.

Additionally a custom SecurityIdentityAugmentor can also be used to add the roles as documented here.

Single Page Applications

Single Page Application (SPA) typically uses XMLHttpRequest(XHR) and the Java Script utility code provided by the OpenId Connect provider to acquire a bearer token and use it to access Quarkus service applications.

For example, here is how you can use keycloak.js to authenticate the users and refresh the expired tokens from the SPA:

<html>
<head>
    <title>keycloak-spa</title>
    <script src="https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/npm/axios/dist/axios.min.js"></script>
    <script src="http://localhost:8180/auth/js/keycloak.js"></script>
    <script>
        var keycloak = new Keycloak();
        keycloak.init({onLoad: 'login-required'}).success(function () {
            console.log('User is now authenticated.');
        }).error(function () {
            window.location.reload();
        });
        function makeAjaxRequest() {
            axios.get("/api/hello", {
                headers: {
                    'Authorization': 'Bearer ' + keycloak.token
                }
            })
            .then( function (response) {
                console.log("Response: ", response.status);
            }).catch(function (error) {
                console.log('refreshing');
                keycloak.updateToken(5).then(function () {
                    console.log('Token refreshed');
                }).catch(function () {
                    console.log('Failed to refresh token');
                    window.location.reload();
                });
            });
    }
    </script>
</head>
<body>
    <button onclick="makeAjaxRequest()">Request</button>
</body>
</html>

Provider Endpoint configuration

OIDC service application needs to know OpenId Connect provider’s token, JsonWebKey (JWK) set and possibly UserInfo and introspection endpoint addresses.

By default they are discovered by adding a /.well-known/openid-configuration path to the configured quarkus.oidc.auth-server-url.

Alternatively, if the discovery endpoint is not available or you would like to save on the discovery endpoint roundtrip, you can disable the discovery and configure them with relative path values, for example:

quarkus.oidc.auth-server-url=http://localhost:8180/auth/realms/quarkus
quarkus.oidc.discovery-enabled=false
# Token endpoint: http://localhost:8180/auth/realms/quarkus/protocol/openid-connect/tokens
quarkus.oidc.token-path=/protocol/openid-connect/tokens
# JWK set endpoint: http://localhost:8180/auth/realms/quarkus/protocol/openid-connect/certs
quarkus.oidc.jwks-path=/protocol/openid-connect/certs
# UserInfo endoint: http://localhost:8180/auth/realms/quarkus/protocol/openid-connect/userinfo
quarkus.oidc.user-info-path=/protocol/openid-connect/userinfo
# Token Introspection endoint: http://localhost:8180/auth/realms/quarkus/protocol/openid-connect/tokens/introspect
quarkus.oidc.introspection-path=/protocol/openid-connect/tokens/introspect

JSON Web Token Claim Verification

Once the bearer JWT token’s signature has been verified and its expires at (exp) claim has been checked, the iss (issuer) claim value is verified next.

By default, the iss claim value is compared to the issuer property which may have been discovered in the well-known provider configuration. But if quarkus.oidc.token.issuer property is set then the iss claim value is compared to it instead.

In some cases, this iss claim verification may not work. For example, if the discovered issuer property contains an internal HTTP/IP address while the token iss claim value contains an external HTTP/IP address. Or when a discovered issuer property contains the template tenant variable but the token iss claim value has the complete tenant-specific issuer value.

In such cases you may want to consider skipping the issuer verification by setting quarkus.oidc.token.issuer=any. Please note that it is not recommended and should be avoided unless no other options are available:

  • If you work with Keycloak and observe the issuer verification errors due to the different host addresses then configure Keycloak with a KEYCLOAK_FRONTEND_URL property to ensure the same host address is used.

  • If the iss property is tenant specific in a multi-tenant deployment then you can use the SecurityIdentity tenant-id attribute to check the issuer is correct in the endpoint itself or the custom JAX-RS filter, for example:

import javax.inject.Inject;
import javax.ws.rs.container.ContainerRequestContext;
import javax.ws.rs.container.ContainerRequestFilter;
import javax.ws.rs.ext.Provider;

import org.eclipse.microprofile.jwt.JsonWebToken;
import io.quarkus.oidc.OidcConfigurationMetadata;
import io.quarkus.security.identity.SecurityIdentity;

@Provider
public class IssuerValidator implements ContainerRequestFilter {
    @Inject
    OidcConfigurationMetadata configMetadata;

    @Inject JsonWebToken jwt;
    @Inject SecurityIdentity identity;

    public void filter(ContainerRequestContext requestContext) {
        String issuer = configMetadata.getIssuer().replace("{tenant-id}", identity.getAttribute("tenant-id"));
        if (!issuer.equals(jwt.getIssuer())) {
            requestContext.abortWith(Response.status(401).build());
        }
    }
}

Note it is also recommended to use quarkus.oidc.token.audience property to verify the token aud (audience) claim value.

Token Propagation

Please see Token Propagation section about the Bearer access token propagation to the downstream services.

Testing

Wiremock

Add the following dependencies to your test project:

<dependency>
    <groupId>io.quarkus</groupId>
    <artifactId>quarkus-test-oidc-server</artifactId>
    <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>
<dependency>
    <groupId>io.quarkus</groupId>
    <artifactId>quarkus-junit5</artifactId>
    <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>
<dependency>
   <groupId>io.rest-assured</groupId>
   <artifactId>rest-assured</artifactId>
   <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>

Prepare the REST test endpoint, set application.properties, for example:

# keycloak.url is set by OidcWiremockTestResource
quarkus.oidc.auth-server-url=${keycloak.url}/realms/quarkus/
quarkus.oidc.client-id=quarkus-service-app
quarkus.oidc.application-type=service
# required to sign the tokens
smallrye.jwt.sign.key.location=privateKey.jwk

and finally write the test code, for example:

import static org.hamcrest.Matchers.equalTo;

import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.HashSet;

import org.hamcrest.Matchers;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;

import io.quarkus.test.common.QuarkusTestResource;
import io.quarkus.test.junit.QuarkusTest;
import io.quarkus.test.oidc.server.OidcWiremockTestResource;
import io.restassured.RestAssured;
import io.smallrye.jwt.build.Jwt;

@QuarkusTest
@QuarkusTestResource(OidcWiremockTestResource.class)
public class BearerTokenAuthorizationTest {

    @Test
    public void testBearerToken() {
        RestAssured.given().auth().oauth2(getAccessToken("alice", new HashSet<>(Arrays.asList("user"))))
            .when().get("/api/users/preferredUserName")
            .then()
            .statusCode(200)
            // the test endpoint returns the name extracted from the injected SecurityIdentity Principal
            .body("userName", equalTo("alice"));
    }

    private String getAccessToken(String userName, Set<String> groups) {
        return Jwt.preferredUserName(userName)
                .groups(groups)
                .issuer("https://server.example.com")
                .audience("https://service.example.com")
                .jws()
                .keyId("1")
                .sign();
    }
}

Testing your quarkus-oidc service application with OidcWiremockTestResource provides the best coverage as even the communication channel is tested against the Wiremock HTTP stubs. OidcWiremockTestResource will be enhanced going forward to support more complex Bearer token test scenarios.

Local Public Key

You can also use a local inlined public key for testing your quarkus-oidc service applications:

quarkus.oidc.client-id=test
quarkus.oidc.public-key=MIIBIjANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAAOCAQ8AMIIBCgKCAQEAlivFI8qB4D0y2jy0CfEqFyy46R0o7S8TKpsx5xbHKoU1VWg6QkQm+ntyIv1p4kE1sPEQO73+HY8+Bzs75XwRTYL1BmR1w8J5hmjVWjc6R2BTBGAYRPFRhor3kpM6ni2SPmNNhurEAHw7TaqszP5eUF/F9+KEBWkwVta+PZ37bwqSE4sCb1soZFrVz/UT/LF4tYpuVYt3YbqToZ3pZOZ9AX2o1GCG3xwOjkc4x0W7ezbQZdC9iftPxVHR8irOijJRRjcPDtA6vPKpzLl6CyYnsIYPd99ltwxTHjr3npfv/3Lw50bAkbT4HeLFxTx4flEoZLKO/g0bAoV2uqBhkA9xnQIDAQAB

smallrye.jwt.sign.key-location=/privateKey.pem

copy privateKey.pem from the integration-tests/oidc-tenancy in the main Quarkus repository and use a test code similar to the one in the Wiremock section above to generate JWT tokens. You can use your own test keys if preferred.

This approach provides a more limited coverage compared to the Wiremock approach - for example, the remote communication code is not covered.