Quarkus - Security Guide

Quarkus security allows you to define security authorization requirements for your code using annotations and/or configuration, and provides several ways to load security authentication information using Quarkus extensions.

Authentication sources

Quarkus supports several sources to load authentication information from. You need to import at least one of the following extensions in order for Quarkus to know how to find the authentication information to check for authorizations:

Table 1. Security Extensions
Extension Description

quarkus-elytron-security-properties-file

Provides support for simple properties files that can be used for testing security. This supports both embedding user info in application.properties and standalone properties files.

quarkus-elytron-security-jdbc

Provides support for authenticating via JDBC.

quarkus-elytron-security-oauth2

Provides support for OAuth2 flows using Elytron. This extension will likely be deprecated soon and replaced by a reactive Vert.x version.

quarkus-smallrye-jwt

A Microprofile JWT implementation that provides support for authenticating using Json Web Tokens. This also allows you to inject the token and claims into the application as per the MP JWT spec.

quarkus-oidc

Provides support for authenticating via an OpenID Connect provider such as Keycloak.

quarkus-keycloak-authorization

Provides support for a policy enforcer using Keycloak Authorization Services.

Please see the linked documents above for details on how to setup the various extensions.

Authenticating via HTTP

Quarkus has two built in authentication mechanisms for HTTP based FORM and BASIC auth. This mechanism is pluggable however so extensions can add additional mechanisms (most notably OpenID Connect for Keycloak based auth).

Basic Authentication

To enable basic authentication set quarkus.http.auth.basic=true. You must also have at least one extension installed that provides a username/password based IdentityProvider, such as Elytron JDBC.

Form Based Authentication

Quarkus provides form based authentication that works in a similar manner to traditional Servlet form based auth. Unlike traditional form authentication the authenticated user is not stored in a HTTP session, as Quarkus does not provide clustered HTTP session support. Instead the authentication information is stored in an encrypted cookie, which can be read by all members of the cluster (provided they all share the same encryption key).

The encryption key can be set using the quarkus.http.auth.session.encryption-key property, and it must be at least 16 characters long. This key is hashed using SHA-256 and the resulting digest is used as a key for AES-256 encryption of the cookie value. This cookie contains a expiry time as part of the encrypted value, so all nodes in the cluster must have their clocks synchronised. At one minute intervals a new cookie will be generated with an updated expiry time if the session is in use.

The following properties can be used to configure form based auth:

Configuration property fixed at build time - ️ Configuration property overridable at runtime

Configuration property

Type

Default

If form authentication is enabled

boolean

false

string

/login.html

string

/error.html

The landing page to redirect to if there is no saved page to redirect back to

string

required

The inactivity timeout

Duration

PT30M

How old a cookie can get before it will be replaced with a new cookie with an updated timeout. Not that smaller values will result in slightly more server load (as new encrypted cookies will be generated more often), however larger values affect the inactivity timeout as the timeout is set when a cookie is generated. For example if this is set to 10 minutes, and the inactivity timeout is 30m, if a users last request is when the cookie is 9m old then the actual timeout will happen 21m after the last request, as the timeout is only refreshed when a new cookie is generated.

Duration

PT1M

The cookie that is used to store the persistent session

string

quarkus-credential

About the Duration format

The format for durations uses the standard java.time.Duration format. You can learn more about it in the Duration#parse() javadoc.

You can also provide duration values starting with a number. In this case, if the value consists only of a number, the converter treats the value as seconds. Otherwise, PT is implicitly prepended to the value to obtain a standard java.time.Duration format.

Authorization in REST endpoints and CDI beans using annotations

Quarkus comes with built-in security to allow for Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) based on the common security annotations @RolesAllowed, @DenyAll, @PermitAll on REST endpoints and CDI beans. An example of an endpoint that makes use of both JAX-RS and Common Security annotations to describe and secure its endpoints is given in SubjectExposingResource Example. Quarkus also provides the io.quarkus.security.Authenticated annotation that will permit any authenticated user to access the resource (equivalent to @RolesAllowed("*")).

SubjectExposingResource Example
import java.security.Principal;

import javax.annotation.security.DenyAll;
import javax.annotation.security.PermitAll;
import javax.annotation.security.RolesAllowed;
import javax.ws.rs.GET;
import javax.ws.rs.Path;
import javax.ws.rs.core.Context;
import javax.ws.rs.core.SecurityContext;

@Path("subject")
public class SubjectExposingResource {

    @GET
    @Path("secured")
    @RolesAllowed("Tester") (1)
    public String getSubjectSecured(@Context SecurityContext sec) {
        Principal user = sec.getUserPrincipal(); (2)
        String name = user != null ? user.getName() : "anonymous";
        return name;
    }

    @GET
    @Path("unsecured")
    @PermitAll(3)
    public String getSubjectUnsecured(@Context SecurityContext sec) {
        Principal user = sec.getUserPrincipal(); (4)
        String name = user != null ? user.getName() : "anonymous";
        return name;
    }

    @GET
    @Path("denied")
    @DenyAll(5)
    public String getSubjectDenied(@Context SecurityContext sec) {
        Principal user = sec.getUserPrincipal();
        String name = user != null ? user.getName() : "anonymous";
        return name;
    }
}
1 This /subject/secured endpoint requires an authenticated user that has been granted the role "Tester" through the use of the @RolesAllowed("Tester") annotation.
2 The endpoint obtains the user principal from the JAX-RS SecurityContext. This will be non-null for a secured endpoint.
3 The /subject/unsecured endpoint allows for unauthenticated access by specifying the @PermitAll annotation.
4 This call to obtain the user principal will return null if the caller is unauthenticated, non-null if the caller is authenticated.
5 The /subject/denied endpoint disallows any access regardless of whether the call is authenticated by specifying the @DenyAll annotation.

Authorization of Web Endpoints using configuration

Quarkus has an integrated plugable web security layer. If security is enabled all HTTP requests will have a permission check performed to make sure they are permitted to continue.

Configuration authorization checks are executed before any annotation-based authorization check is done, so both checks have to pass for a request to be allowed.

The default implementation allows you to define permissions using config in application.properties. An example config is shown below:

quarkus.http.auth.policy.role-policy1.roles-allowed=user,admin                      (1)

quarkus.http.auth.permission.roles1.paths=/roles-secured/*,/other/*,/api/*          (2)
quarkus.http.auth.permission.roles1.policy=role-policy1

quarkus.http.auth.permission.permit1.paths=/public/*                                (3)
quarkus.http.auth.permission.permit1.policy=permit
quarkus.http.auth.permission.permit1.methods=GET

quarkus.http.auth.permission.deny1.paths=/forbidden                                 (4)
quarkus.http.auth.permission.deny1.policy=deny
1 This defines a role based policy that allows users with the user and admin roles. This is referenced by later rules
2 This is a permission set that references the previously defined policy. roles1 is an arbitrary name, you can call the permission sets whatever you want.
3 This permission references the default permit built in policy to allow GET methods to /public. This is actually a no-op in this example, as this request would have been allowed anyway.
4 This permission references the built in deny build in policy /forbidden. This is an exact path match as it does not end with *.

Permissions are defined in config using permission sets. These are arbitrarily named permission grouping. Each permission set must specify a policy that is used to control access. There are three built in policies: deny, permit and authenticated, which permit all, deny all and only allow authenticated users respectively.

It is also possible to define role based policies, as shown in the example. These policies will only allow users with the specified roles to access the resources.

Matching on paths, methods

Permission sets can also specify paths and methods as a comma separated list. If a path ends with '*' then it is considered to be a wildcard match and will match all sub paths, otherwise it is an exact match and will only match that specific path:

quarkus.http.auth.permission.permit1.paths=/public/*,/css/*,/js/*,/robots.txt
quarkus.http.auth.permission.permit1.policy=permit
quarkus.http.auth.permission.permit1.methods=GET,HEAD

Matching path but not method

If a request would match one or more permission sets based on the path, but does not match any due to method requirements then the request is rejected.

Given the above permission set, GET /public/foo would match both the path and method and thus be allowed, whereas POST /public/foo would match the path but not the method and would thus be rejected.

Matching multiple paths: longest wins

Matching is always done on a longest path basis, less specific permission sets are not considered if a more specific one has been matched:

quarkus.http.auth.permission.permit1.paths=/public/*
quarkus.http.auth.permission.permit1.policy=permit
quarkus.http.auth.permission.permit1.methods=GET,HEAD

quarkus.http.auth.permission.deny1.paths=/public/forbidden-folder/*
quarkus.http.auth.permission.deny1.policy=deny
Given the above permission set, GET /public/forbidden-folder/foo would match both permission sets' paths, but because it matches the deny1 permission set’s path on a longer match, deny1 will be chosen and the request will be rejected.

Matching multiple paths: most specific method wins

If a path is registered with multiple permission sets then any permission sets that specify a HTTP method will take precedence and permissions sets without a method will not be considered (assuming of course the method matches). In this instance, the permission sets without methods will only come into effect if the request method does not match any of the sets with method permissions.

quarkus.http.auth.permission.permit1.paths=/public/*
quarkus.http.auth.permission.permit1.policy=permit
quarkus.http.auth.permission.permit1.methods=GET,HEAD

quarkus.http.auth.permission.deny1.paths=/public/*
quarkus.http.auth.permission.deny1.policy=deny
Given the above permission set, GET /public/foo would match both permission sets' paths, but because it matches the permit1 permission set’s explicit method, permit1 will be chosen and the request will be accepted. PUT /public/foo on the other hand, will not match the method permissions of permit1 and so deny1 will be activated and reject the request.

Matching multiple paths and methods: both win

If multiple permission sets specify the same path and method (or multiple have no method) then both permissions have to allow access for the request to proceed. Note that for this to happen both have to either have specified the method, or have no method, method specific matches take precedence as stated above:

quarkus.http.auth.policy.user-policy1.roles-allowed=user
quarkus.http.auth.policy.admin-policy1.roles-allowed=admin

quarkus.http.auth.permission.roles1.paths=/api/*,/restricted/*
quarkus.http.auth.permission.roles1.policy=user-policy1

quarkus.http.auth.permission.roles2.paths=/api/*,/admin/*
quarkus.http.auth.permission.roles2.policy=admin-policy1
Given the above permission set, GET /api/foo would match both permission sets' paths, so would require both the user and admin roles.

Authenticated representation

For every authenticated resource, you can inject a SecurityIdentity instance to get the authenticated identity information.

In some other contexts you may have other parallel representations of the same information (or parts of it) such as SecurityContext for JAX-RS or JsonWebToken for JWT.

Configuration

There are two configuration settings that alter the RBAC behavior:

  • quarkus.security.jaxrs.deny-unannotated-endpoints=true|false - if set to true, the access will be denied for all JAX-RS endpoints by default. That is if the security annotations do not define the access control. Defaults to false

  • quarkus.security.deny-unannotated-members=true|false - if set to true, the access will be denied to all CDI methods and JAX-RS endpoints that do not have security annotations but are defined in classes that contain methods with security annotations. Defaults to false.

Registering Security Providers

When running in native mode the default behavior for Graal native image generation is to only include the main "SUN" provider unless you have enabled SSL, in which case all security providers are registered. If you are not using SSL, then you can selectively register security providers by name using the quarkus.security.users.security-providers property. The following example illustrates configuration to register the "SunRsaSign" and "SunJCE" security providers:

Example Security Providers Configuration
quarkus.security.security-providers=SunRsaSign,SunJCE
...