Quarkus - Simplified Hibernate ORM with Panache

Hibernate ORM is the de facto JPA implementation and offers you the full breadth of an Object Relational Mapper. It makes complex mappings possible, but it does not make simple and common mappings trivial. Hibernate ORM with Panache focuses on making your entities trivial and fun to write in Quarkus.

First: an example

What we’re doing in Panache is allow you to write your Hibernate ORM entities like this:

public class Person extends PanacheEntity {
    public String name;
    public LocalDate birth;
    public PersonStatus status;

    public static Person findByName(String name){
      return find("name", name).firstResult();

    public static List<Person> findAlive(){
      return list("status", Status.Alive);

    public static void deleteStefs(){
      delete("name", "Stef");

You have noticed how much more compact and readable the code is? Does this look interesting? Read on!

the list() method might be surprising at first. It takes fragments of HQL (JP-QL) queries and contextualize the rest. That makes for very concise but yet readable code.

Setting up and configuring Hibernate ORM with Panache

To get started:

  • add your settings in application.properties

  • annotate your entities with @Entity and make them extend PanacheEntity

  • place your entity logic in static methods in your entities

In your pom.xml, add the following dependencies:

  • the Panache JPA extension

  • your JDBC driver extension (quarkus-jdbc-postgresql, quarkus-jdbc-h2, quarkus-jdbc-mariadb, …​)

    <!-- Hibernate ORM specific dependencies -->

    <!-- JDBC driver dependencies -->

Then add the relevant configuration properties in application.properties.

# configure your datasource
quarkus.datasource.url: jdbc:postgresql://localhost:5432/mydatabase
quarkus.datasource.driver: org.postgresql.Driver
quarkus.datasource.username: sarah
quarkus.datasource.password: connor

# drop and create the database at startup (use `update` to only update the schema)

Defining your entity

To define a Panache entity, simply extend PanacheEntity, annotate it with @Entity and add your columns as public fields:

public class Person extends PanacheEntity {
    public String name;
    public LocalDate birth;
    public PersonStatus status;

You can put all your JPA column annotations on the public fields. If you need a field to not be persisted, use the @Transient annotation on it. If you need to write accessors, you can:

public class Person extends PanacheEntity {
    public String name;
    public LocalDate birth;
    public PersonStatus status;

    // this will store all names in lowercase in the DB,
    // and make them uppercase in the model
    public String getName(){
      return name.toUppercase();

    public String setName(String name){
      this.name = name.toLowercase();

And thanks to our field access rewrite, when your users read person.name they will actually call your getName() accessor, and similarly for field writes and the setter. This allows for proper encapsulation at runtime as all fields calls will be replaced by the corresponding getter/setter calls.

Most useful operations

Once you have written your entity, here are the most common operations you will be able to do:

// creating a person
Person person = new Person();
person.name = "Stef";
person.birth = LocalDate.of(1910, Month.FEBRUARY, 1);
person.status = Status.Alive;

// persist it

// note that once persisted, you don't need to explicitly save your entity: all
// modifications are automatically persisted on transaction commit.

// check if it's persistent
  // delete it

// getting a list of all Person entities
List<Person> allPersons = Person.listAll();

// finding a specific person by ID
person = Person.findById(personId);

// finding all living persons
List<Person> livingPersons = Person.list("status", Status.Alive);

// counting all persons
int countAll = Person.count();

// counting all living persons
int countAlive = Person.count("status", Status.Alive);

// delete all living persons
Person.delete("status", Status.Alive);

// delete all persons

All list methods have equivalent stream versions.

List<String> namesButEmmanuels = Person.streamAll()
    .map(p -> p.name.toLowerCase() )
    .filter( n -> ! "emmanuel".equals(n) )


You should only use list and stream methods if your table contains small enough data sets. For larger data sets you can use the find method equivalents, which return a PanacheQuery on which you can do paging:

// create a query for all living persons
PanacheQuery<Person> livingPersons = Person.find("status", Status.Alive);

// make it use pages of 25 entries at a time

// get the first page
List<Person> firstPage = livingPersons.list();

// get the second page
List<Person> secondPage = livingPersons.nextPage().list();

// get page 7
List<Person> page7 = livingPersons.page(Page.of(7, 25)).list();

// get the number of pages
int numberOfPages = livingPersons.pageCount();

// get the total number of entities returned by this query without paging
int count = livingPersons.count();

// and you can chain methods of course
return Person.find("status", Status.Alive)

The PanacheQuery type has many other methods to deal with paging and returning streams.


All methods accepting a query string also accept the following simplified query form:

List<Person> persons = Person.list("order by name,birth");

But these methods also accept an optional Sort parameter, which allows your to abstract your sorting:

List<Person> persons = Person.list(Sort.by("name").and("birth"));

// and with more restrictions
List<Person> persons = Person.list("status", Sort.by("name").and("birth"), Status.Alive);

The Sort class has plenty of methods for adding columns and specifying sort direction.

Adding entity methods

In general, we recommend not adding custom queries for your entities outside of the entities themselves, to keep all model queries close to the models they operate on. So we recommend adding them as static methods in your entity class:

public class Person extends PanacheEntity {
    public String name;
    public LocalDate birth;
    public PersonStatus status;

    public static Person findByName(String name){
      return find("name", name).firstResult();

    public static List<Person> findAlive(){
      return list("status", Status.Alive);

    public static void deleteStefs(){
      delete("name", "Stef");

Simplified queries

Normally, HQL queries are of this form: from EntityName [where …​] [order by …​], with optional elements at the end.

If your query does not start with from, we support the following additional forms:

  • order by …​ which will expand to from EntityName order by …​

  • <singleColumnName> (and single parameter) which will expand to from EntityName where <singleColumnName> = ?

  • <query> will expand to from EntityName where <query>

Query parameters

You can pass query parameters by index (1-based):

Person.find("name = ?1 and status = ?2", "stef", Status.Alive);

Or by name using a Map:

Map<String, Object> params = new HashMap<>();
params.put("name", "stef");
params.put("status", Status.Alive);
Person.find("name = :name and status = :status", params);

Or using the convenience class Parameters to either build a Map or just use as-is:

// generate a Map
Person.find("name = :name and status = :status",
         Parameters.with("name", "stef").and("status", Status.Alive).map());

// use it as-is
Person.find("name = :name and status = :status",
         Parameters.with("name", "stef").and("status", Status.Alive));

Every query operation accepts passing parameters by index (Object…​), or by name (Map<String,Object> or Parameters).

The DAO/Repository option

Look, we get it: you have a love/hate relationship with DAOs/Repositories but you can’t live without them. We don’t judge, we know life is tough and we’ve got you covered.

If you want to have Repositories, you can get the exact same convenient methods injected in your Repository by making it implement PanacheRepository:

public class PersonRepository implements PanacheRepository<Person> {

   // put your custom logic here as instance methods

   public Person findByName(String name){
     return find("name", name).firstResult();

   public List<Person> findAlive(){
     return list("status", Status.Alive);

   public void deleteStefs(){
     delete("name", "Stef");

Absolutely all the operations that are defined on PanacheEntityBase are available on your DAO, so using it is exactly the same except you need to inject it:

PersonRepository personRepository;

public long count(){
  return personRepository.count();

So if Repositories are your thing, you can keep doing them. Even with repositories, you can keep your entities as subclasses of PanacheEntity in order to get the ID and public fields working, but you can even skip that and go back to specifying your ID and using getters and setters if that’s your thing. We’re not judging.

Custom IDs

IDs are often a touchy subject, and not everyone’s up for letting them handled by the framework, once again we have you covered.

You can specify your own ID strategy by extending PanacheEntityBase instead of PanacheEntity. Then you just declare whatever ID you want as a public field:

public class Person extends PanacheEntityBase {

            name = "personSequence",
            sequenceName = "person_id_seq",
            allocationSize = 1,
            initialValue = 4)
 @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.SEQUENCE, generator = "personSequence")
 public Integer id;


If you’re using repositories, then you will want to extend PanacheRepositoryBase instead of PanacheRepository and specify your ID type as an extra type parameter:

public class PersonRepository implements PanacheRepositoryBase<Person,Integer> {


How and why we simplify Hibernate ORM mappings

When it comes to writing Hibernate ORM entities, there are a number of annoying things that users have grown used to reluctantly deal with, such as:

  • Duplicating ID logic: most entities need an ID, most people don’t care how it’s set, because it’s not really relevant to your model.

  • Dumb getters and setters: since Java lacks support for properties in the language, we have to create fields, then generate getters and setters for those fields, even if they don’t actually do anything more than read/write the fields.

  • Traditional EE patterns advise to split entity definition (the model) from the operations you can do on them (DAOs, Repositories), but really that requires an unnatural split between the state and its operations even though we would never do something like that for regular objects in the Object Oriented architecture, where state and methods are in the same class. Moreover, this requires two classes per entity, and requires injection of the DAO or Repository where you need to do entity operations, which breaks your edit flow and requires you to get out of the code you’re writing to set up an injection point before coming back to use it.

  • Hibernate queries are super powerful, but overly verbose for common operations, requiring you to write queries even when you don’t need all the parts.

  • Hibernate is very general-purpose, but does not make it trivial to do trivial operations that make up 90% of our model usage.

With Panache, we took an opinionated approach to tackle all these problems:

  • Make your entities extend PanacheEntity: it has an ID field that is auto-generated. If you require a custom ID strategy, you can extend PanacheEntityBase instead and handle the ID yourself.

  • Use public fields. Get rid of dumb getter and setters. Under the hood, we will generate all getters and setters that are missing, and rewrite every access to these fields to use the accessor methods. This way you can still write useful accessors when you need them, which will be used even though your entity users still use field accesses.

  • Don’t use DAOs or Repositories: put all your entity logic in static methods in your entity class. Your entity superclass comes with lots of super useful static methods and you can add your own in your entity class. Users can just start using your entity Person by typing Person. and getting completion for all the operations in a single place.

  • Don’t write parts of the query that you don’t need: write Person.find("order by name") or Person.find("name = ?1 and status = ?2", "stef", Status.Alive) or even better Person.find("name", "stef").

That’s all there is to it: with Panache, Hibernate ORM has never looked so trim and neat.