Quarkus - MicroProfile Health

This guide demonstrates how your Quarkus application can utilize the MicroProfile Health specification through the SmallRye Health extension.

MicroProfile Health allows applications to provide information about their state to external viewers which is typically useful in cloud environments where automated processes must be able to determine whether the application should be discarded or restarted.

Prerequisites

To complete this guide, you need:

  • less than 15 minutes

  • an IDE

  • JDK 1.8+ installed with JAVA_HOME configured appropriately

  • Apache Maven 3.5.3+

Architecture

In this guide, we build a simple REST application that exposes MicroProfile Health functionalities at the /health/live and /health/ready endpoints according to the specification.

Solution

We recommend that you follow the instructions in the next sections and create the application step by step. However, you can go right to the completed example.

Clone the Git repository: git clone https://github.com/quarkusio/quarkus-quickstarts.git, or download an archive.

The solution is located in the microprofile-health directory.

Creating the Maven Project

First, we need a new project. Create a new project with the following command:

mvn io.quarkus:quarkus-maven-plugin:0.19.1:create \
    -DprojectGroupId=org.acme \
    -DprojectArtifactId=microprofile-health \
    -Dextensions="health"

This command generates a Maven project, importing the smallrye-health extension which is an implementation of the MicroProfile Health specification used in Quarkus.

Running the health check

Importing the smallrye-health extension directly exposes three REST endpoints:

  • /health/live - The application is up and running.

  • /health/ready - The application is ready to serve requests.

  • /health - Accumulating all health check procedures in the application.

To check that the smallrye-health extension is working as expected:

All of the health REST endpoints return a simple JSON object with two fields:

  • status — the overall result of all the health check procedures

  • checks — an array of individual checks

The general status of the health check is computed as a logical AND of all the declared health check procedures. The checks array is empty as we have not specified any health check procedure yet so let’s define some.

Creating your first health check

In this section, we create our first simple health check procedure.

Create the org.acme.health.SimpleHealthCheck class:

package org.acme.health;

import org.eclipse.microprofile.health.HealthCheck;
import org.eclipse.microprofile.health.HealthCheckResponse;
import org.eclipse.microprofile.health.Liveness;

import javax.enterprise.context.ApplicationScoped;

@Liveness
@ApplicationScoped
public class SimpleHealthCheck implements HealthCheck {

    @Override
    public HealthCheckResponse call() {
        return HealthCheckResponse.named("Simple health check").up().build();
    }
}

As you can see health check procedures are defined as implementations of the HealthCheck interface which are defined as CDI beans with the one of the following CDI qualifiers:

  • @Liveness - the liveness check accessible at /health/live

  • @Readiness - the readiness check accessible at /health/ready

HealthCheck is a functional interface whose single method call returns a HealthCheckResponse object which can be easily constructed by the fluent builder API shown in the example.

As we have started our Quarkus application in dev mode simply repeat the request to http://localhost:8080/health/live by refreshing your browser window or by using curl http://localhost:8080/health/live. Because we defined our health check to be a liveness procedure (with @Liveness qualifier) the new health check procedure is now present in the checks array.

Congratulations! You’ve created your first Quarkus health check procedure. Let’s continue by exploring what else can be done with the MicroProfile Health specification.

Adding a readiness health check procedure

In the previous section, we created a simple liveness health check procedure which states whether our application is running or not. In this section, we will create a readiness health check which will be able to state whether our application is able to process requests.

We will create another health check procedure that simulates a connection to an external service provider such as a database. For starters, we will always return the response indicating the application is ready.

Create org.acme.health.DatabaseConnectionHealthCheck class:

package org.acme.health;

import org.eclipse.microprofile.health.HealthCheck;
import org.eclipse.microprofile.health.HealthCheckResponse;
import org.eclipse.microprofile.health.Readiness;

import javax.enterprise.context.ApplicationScoped;

@Readiness
@ApplicationScoped
public class DatabaseConnectionHealthCheck implements HealthCheck {

    @Override
    public HealthCheckResponse call() {
        return HealthCheckResponse.named("Database connection health check").up().build();
    }
}

If you now rerun the health check at http://localhost:8080/health/live the checks array will contain only the previously defined SimpleHealthCheck as it is the only check defined with the @Liveness qualifier. However, if you access http://localhost:8080/health/ready (in the browser or with curl http://localhost:8080/health/ready) you will see only the Database connection health check as it is the only health check defined with the @Readiness qualifier as the readiness health check procedure.

If you access http://localhost:8080/health you will get back both checks.

More information about which health check procedures should be used in which situation is detailed in the MicroProfile Health specification. Generally, the liveness procedures determine whether the application should be restarted while readiness procedures determine whether it makes sense to contact the application with requests.

Negative health check procedures

In this section, we extend our Database connection health check with the option of stating that our application is not ready to process requests as the underlying database connection cannot be established. For simplicity reasons, we only determine whether the database is accessible or not by a configuration property.

Update the org.acme.health.DatabaseConnectionHealthCheck class:

package org.acme.health;

import org.eclipse.microprofile.config.inject.ConfigProperty;
import org.eclipse.microprofile.health.HealthCheck;
import org.eclipse.microprofile.health.HealthCheckResponse;
import org.eclipse.microprofile.health.HealthCheckResponseBuilder;
import org.eclipse.microprofile.health.Readiness;

import javax.enterprise.context.ApplicationScoped;

@Readiness
@ApplicationScoped
public class DatabaseConnectionHealthCheck implements HealthCheck {

    @ConfigProperty(name = "database.up", defaultValue = "false")
    private boolean databaseUp;

    @Override
    public HealthCheckResponse call() {

        HealthCheckResponseBuilder responseBuilder = HealthCheckResponse.named("Database connection health check");

        try {
            simulateDatabaseConnectionVerification();
            responseBuilder.up();
        } catch (IllegalStateException e) {
            // cannot access the database
            responseBuilder.down();
        }

        return responseBuilder.build();
    }

    private void simulateDatabaseConnectionVerification() {
        if (!databaseUp) {
            throw new IllegalStateException("Cannot contact database");
        }
    }
}

If you now rerun the readiness health check (at http://localhost:8080/health/ready) the overall status should be DOWN. You can also check the liveness check at http://localhost:8080/health/live which will return the overall status UP because it isn’t influenced by the readiness checks.

As we shouldn’t leave this application with a readiness check in a DOWN state and because we are running Quarkus in dev mode you can add database.up=true in src/main/resources/application.properties and rerun the readiness health check again — it should be up again.

Adding user-specific data to the health check response

In previous sections, we saw how to create simple health checks with only the minimal attributes, namely, the health check name and its status (UP or DOWN). However, the MicroProfile specification also provides a way for the applications to supply arbitrary data in the form of key-value pairs sent to the consuming end. This can be done by using the withData(key, value) method of the health check response builder API.

Let’s create a new health check procedure org.acme.health.DataHealthCheck:

package org.acme.health;

import org.eclipse.microprofile.health.Liveness;
import org.eclipse.microprofile.health.HealthCheck;
import org.eclipse.microprofile.health.HealthCheckResponse;

import javax.enterprise.context.ApplicationScoped;

@Liveness
@ApplicationScoped
public class DataHealthCheck implements HealthCheck {

    @Override
    public HealthCheckResponse call() {
        return HealthCheckResponse.named("Health check with data")
                .up()
                .withData("foo", "fooValue")
                .withData("bar", "barValue")
                .build();
    }
}

If you rerun the liveness health check procedure by accessing the /health/live endpoint you can see that the new health check Health check with data is present in the checks array. This check contains a new attribute called data which is a JSON object consisting of the properties we have defined in our health check procedure.

This functionality is specifically useful in failure scenarios where you can pass the error along with the health check response.

        try {
            simulateDatabaseConnectionVerification();
            responseBuilder.up();
        } catch (IllegalStateException e) {
            // cannot access the database
            responseBuilder.down()
                    .withData("error", e.getMessage()); // pass the exception message
        }

Conclusion

MicroProfile Health provides a way for your application to distribute information about its healthiness state to state whether or not it is able to function properly. Liveness checks are utilized to tell whether the application should be restarted and readiness checks are used to tell whether the application is able to process requests.

All that is needed to enable the MicroProfile Health features in Quarkus is:

  • adding the smallrye-health Quarkus extension to your project using the quarkus-maven-plugin:

    mvn quarkus:add-extension -Dextensions="health"
  • or simply adding the following Maven dependency:

    <dependency>
      <groupId>io.quarkus</groupId>
      <artifactId>quarkus-smallrye-health</artifactId>
    </dependency>