Quarkus - Amazon SES Client

Amazon Simple Email Service (SES) is a flexible and highly-scalable email sending and receiving service. Using SES, you can send emails with any type of correspondence. You can find more information about SES at the Amazon SES website.

The SES extension is based on AWS Java SDK 2.x. It’s a major rewrite of the 1.x code base that offers two programming models (Blocking & Async).

This technology is considered preview.

In preview, backward compatibility and presence in the ecosystem is not guaranteed. Specific improvements might require to change configuration or APIs and plans to become stable are under way. Feedback is welcome on our mailing list or as issues in our GitHub issue tracker.

For a full list of possible extension statuses, check our FAQ entry.

The Quarkus extension supports two programming models:

  • Blocking access using URL Connection HTTP client (by default) or the Apache HTTP Client

  • Asynchronous programming based on JDK’s CompletableFuture objects and the Netty HTTP client.

In this guide, we see how you can get your REST services to use SES locally and on AWS.

Prerequisites

To complete this guide, you need:

  • JDK 1.8+ installed with JAVA_HOME configured appropriately

  • an IDE

  • Apache Maven 3.6.2+

  • An AWS Account to access the SES service

  • Docker for your system to run SES locally for testing purposes

Set up SES locally

The easiest way to start working with SES is to run a local instance as a container. However, local instance of SES is only mocks the SES APIs without the actual email sending capabilities. You can still use it for this guide to verify an API communication or integration test purposes.

docker run --rm --name local-ses -p 8012:4579 -e SERVICES=ses -e START_WEB=0 -d localstack/localstack:0.11.1

This starts a SES instance that is accessible on port 8012.

Create an AWS profile for your local instance using AWS CLI:

$ aws configure --profile localstack
AWS Access Key ID [None]: test-key
AWS Secret Access Key [None]: test-secret
Default region name [None]: us-east-1
Default output format [None]:

Using SES on your AWS account

Amazon applies certain restrictions to new Amazon SES accounts, mainly to prevent fraud and abuse. All new accounts are in the Amazon SES sandbox. All the features of the Amazon SES are still available while in sandbox, but a following restrictions applies: - You can send mail to verified email addresses and domains or to the Amazon SES mailbox simulator - You can only send mail from verified email addresses and domains - You can send a maximum of 1 message per second.

Going production, you’d need to get your account of the sandbox following the Amazon procedure.

Set up AWS SES

We assume you are going to use AWS SES sandbox for the sake of this guide. But before sending any email, you must verify sender and recipient email addresses using AWS CLI. You can use your personal email or any temporary email service available if you wish.

aws ses verify-email-identity --email-address <sender@email.address>
aws ses verify-email-identity --email-address <recipient@email.address>

Now, you need to open a mailboxes of those email addresses in order to follow confirmation procedure. Once email is approved you can use it in your application.

If you are using local SES you still need to verify email addresses, otherwise your send email in order to let local SES accepting your request. However, no emails to be send as it only mocks the service APIs.

aws ses verify-email-identity --email-address <sender@email.address> --profile localstack --endpoint-url=http://localhost:8012
aws ses verify-email-identity --email-address <recipient@email.address> --profile localstack --endpoint-url=http://localhost:8012

Solution

The application built here allows sending text emails to the recipients that are verified on AWS SES.

We recommend that you follow the instructions in the next sections and create the application step by step. However, you can go right to the completed example.

Clone the Git repository: git clone https://github.com/quarkusio/quarkus-quickstarts.git, or download an archive.

The solution is located in the amazon-ses-quickstart directory.

Creating the Maven project

First, we need a new project. Create a new project with the following command:

mvn io.quarkus:quarkus-maven-plugin:1.10.2.Final:create \
    -DprojectGroupId=org.acme \
    -DprojectArtifactId=amazon-ses-quickstart \
    -DclassName="org.acme.ses.QuarkusSesSyncResource" \
    -Dpath="/sync" \
    -Dextensions="resteasy-jackson,amazon-ses,resteasy-mutiny"
cd amazon-ses-quickstart

This command generates a Maven structure importing the RESTEasy/JAX-RS, Mutiny and Amazon SES Client extensions. After this, the amazon-ses extension has been added to your pom.xml as well as the Mutiny support for RESTEasy.

Creating JSON REST service

Lets create a org.acme.ses.QuarkusSesSyncResource that will provide an API to send emails using the synchronous client.

package org.acme.ses;

import javax.inject.Inject;
import javax.ws.rs.Consumes;
import javax.ws.rs.POST;
import javax.ws.rs.Path;
import javax.ws.rs.Produces;
import javax.ws.rs.core.MediaType;
import org.acme.ses.model.Email;
import software.amazon.awssdk.services.ses.SesClient;

@Path("/sync")
@Produces(MediaType.TEXT_PLAIN)
@Consumes(MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON)
public class QuarkusSesSyncResource {

    @Inject
    SesClient ses;

    @POST
    @Path("/email")
    public String encrypt(Email data) {
        return ses.sendEmail(req -> req
            .source(data.getFrom())
            .destination(d -> d.toAddresses(data.getTo()))
            .message(msg -> msg
                .subject(sub -> sub.data(data.getSubject()))
                .body(b -> b.text(txt -> txt.data(data.getBody()))))).messageId();
    }
}

Configuring SES clients

Both SES clients (sync and async) are configurable via the application.properties file that can be provided in the src/main/resources directory. Additionally, you need to add to the classpath a proper implementation of the sync client. By default the extension uses the URL connection HTTP client, so you need to add a URL connection client dependency to the pom.xml file:

<dependency>
    <groupId>software.amazon.awssdk</groupId>
    <artifactId>url-connection-client</artifactId>
</dependency>

If you want to use Apache HTTP client instead, configure it as follows:

quarkus.ses.sync-client.type=apache

And add the following dependency to the application pom.xml:

<dependency>
    <groupId>software.amazon.awssdk</groupId>
    <artifactId>apache-client</artifactId>
</dependency>

If you’re going to use a local SES instance, configure it as follows:

quarkus.ses.endpoint-override=http://localhost:8012

quarkus.ses.aws.region=us-east-1
quarkus.ses.aws.credentials.type=static
quarkus.ses.aws.credentials.static-provider.access-key-id=test-key
quarkus.ses.aws.credentials.static-provider.secret-access-key=test-secret
  • quarkus.ses.aws.region - It’s required by the client, but since you’re using a local SES instance use us-east-1 as it’s a default region of localstack’s SES.

  • quarkus.ses.aws.credentials.type - Set static credentials provider with any values for access-key-id and secret-access-key

  • quarkus.ses.endpoint-override - Override the SES client to use a local instance instead of an AWS service

If you want to work with an AWS account, you can simply remove or comment out all Amazon SES related properties. By default, the SES client extension will use the default credentials provider chain that looks for credentials in this order:

  • Java System Properties - aws.accessKeyId and aws.secretAccessKey

  • Environment Variables - AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID and AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY

  • Credential profiles file at the default location (~/.aws/credentials) shared by all AWS SDKs and the AWS CLI

  • Credentials delivered through the Amazon ECS if the AWS_CONTAINER_CREDENTIALS_RELATIVE_URI environment variable is set and the security manager has permission to access the variable,

  • Instance profile credentials delivered through the Amazon EC2 metadata service

And the region from your AWS CLI profile will be used.

Next steps

Packaging

Packaging your application is as simple as ./mvnw clean package. It can be run with java -jar target/amazon-ses-quickstart-1.0-SNAPSHOT-runner.jar.

With GraalVM installed, you can also create a native executable binary: ./mvnw clean package -Dnative. Depending on your system, that will take some time.

Going asynchronous

Thanks to the AWS SDK v2.x used by the Quarkus extension, you can use the asynchronous programming model out of the box.

Create a org.acme.ses.QuarkusSesAsyncResource REST resource that will be similar to our QuarkusSesSyncResource but using an asynchronous programming model.

package org.acme.ses;

import io.smallrye.mutiny.Uni;
import javax.inject.Inject;
import javax.ws.rs.Consumes;
import javax.ws.rs.POST;
import javax.ws.rs.Path;
import javax.ws.rs.Produces;
import javax.ws.rs.core.MediaType;
import org.acme.ses.model.Email;
import software.amazon.awssdk.services.ses.SesAsyncClient;
import software.amazon.awssdk.services.ses.model.SendEmailResponse;

@Path("/async")
@Produces(MediaType.TEXT_PLAIN)
@Consumes(MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON)
public class QuarkusSesAsyncResource {

    @Inject
    SesAsyncClient ses;

    @POST
    @Path("/email")
    public Uni<String> encrypt(Email data) {
        return Uni.createFrom()
            .completionStage(
                ses.sendEmail(req -> req
                    .source(data.getFrom())
                    .destination(d -> d.toAddresses(data.getTo()))
                    .message(msg -> msg
                        .subject(sub -> sub.data(data.getSubject()))
                        .body(b -> b.text(txt -> txt.data(data.getBody()))))))
            .onItem().apply(SendEmailResponse::messageId);
    }
}

We create Uni instances from the CompletionStage objects returned by the asynchronous SES client, and then transform the emitted item.

And we need to add the Netty HTTP client dependency to the pom.xml:

<dependency>
    <groupId>software.amazon.awssdk</groupId>
    <artifactId>netty-nio-client</artifactId>
</dependency>

Configuration Reference

Configuration property fixed at build time - All other configuration properties are overridable at runtime

Configuration property

Type

Default

List of execution interceptors that will have access to read and modify the request and response objects as they are processed by the AWS SDK. The list should consists of class names which implements software.amazon.awssdk.core.interceptor.ExecutionInterceptor interface.

list of string

Type of the sync HTTP client implementation

url, apache

url

AWS SDK client configurations

Type

Default

The endpoint URI with which the SDK should communicate. If not specified, an appropriate endpoint to be used for the given service and region.

URI

The amount of time to allow the client to complete the execution of an API call. This timeout covers the entire client execution except for marshalling. This includes request handler execution, all HTTP requests including retries, unmarshalling, etc. This value should always be positive, if present.

Duration

The amount of time to wait for the HTTP request to complete before giving up and timing out. This value should always be positive, if present.

Duration

AWS services configurations

Type

Default

An Amazon Web Services region that hosts the given service.

It overrides region provider chain with static value of region with which the service client should communicate.

If not set, region is retrieved via the default providers chain in the following order:

  • aws.region system property

  • region property from the profile file

  • Instance profile file

See software.amazon.awssdk.regions.Region for available regions.

Region

Configure the credentials provider that should be used to authenticate with AWS.

Available values:

  • default - the provider will attempt to identify the credentials automatically using the following checks:

    • Java System Properties - aws.accessKeyId and aws.secretKey

    • Environment Variables - AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID and AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY

    • Credential profiles file at the default location (~/.aws/credentials) shared by all AWS SDKs and the AWS CLI

    • Credentials delivered through the Amazon EC2 container service if AWS_CONTAINER_CREDENTIALS_RELATIVE_URI environment variable is set and security manager has permission to access the variable.

    • Instance profile credentials delivered through the Amazon EC2 metadata service

  • static - the provider that uses the access key and secret access key specified in the static-provider section of the config.

  • system-property - it loads credentials from the aws.accessKeyId, aws.secretAccessKey and aws.sessionToken system properties.

  • env-variable - it loads credentials from the AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID, AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY and AWS_SESSION_TOKEN environment variables.

  • profile - credentials are based on AWS configuration profiles. This loads credentials from a profile file, allowing you to share multiple sets of AWS security credentials between different tools like the AWS SDK for Java and the AWS CLI.

  • container - It loads credentials from a local metadata service. Containers currently supported by the AWS SDK are Amazon Elastic Container Service (ECS) and AWS Greengrass

  • instance-profile - It loads credentials from the Amazon EC2 Instance Metadata Service.

  • process - Credentials are loaded from an external process. This is used to support the credential_process setting in the profile credentials file. See Sourcing Credentials From External Processes for more information.

  • anonymous - It always returns anonymous AWS credentials. Anonymous AWS credentials result in un-authenticated requests and will fail unless the resource or API’s policy has been configured to specifically allow anonymous access.

default, static, system-property, env-variable, profile, container, instance-profile, process, anonymous

default

Default credentials provider configuration

Type

Default

Whether this provider should fetch credentials asynchronously in the background. If this is true, threads are less likely to block, but additional resources are used to maintain the provider.

boolean

false

Whether the provider should reuse the last successful credentials provider in the chain. Reusing the last successful credentials provider will typically return credentials faster than searching through the chain.

boolean

true

Static credentials provider configuration

Type

Default

string

string

AWS Profile credentials provider configuration

Type

Default

The name of the profile that should be used by this credentials provider. If not specified, the value in AWS_PROFILE environment variable or aws.profile system property is used and defaults to default name.

string

Process credentials provider configuration

Type

Default

Whether the provider should fetch credentials asynchronously in the background. If this is true, threads are less likely to block when credentials are loaded, but additional resources are used to maintain the provider.

boolean

false

The amount of time between when the credentials expire and when the credentials should start to be refreshed. This allows the credentials to be refreshed *before* they are reported to expire.

Duration

15S

The maximum size of the output that can be returned by the external process before an exception is raised.

MemorySize

1024

The command that should be executed to retrieve credentials.

string

Sync HTTP transport configurations

Type

Default

The maximum amount of time to establish a connection before timing out.

Duration

2S

The amount of time to wait for data to be transferred over an established, open connection before the connection is timed out.

Duration

30S

TLS key managers provider type.

Available providers:

  • none - Use this provider if you don’t want the client to present any certificates to the remote TLS host.

  • system-property - Provider checks the standard javax.net.ssl.keyStore, javax.net.ssl.keyStorePassword, and javax.net.ssl.keyStoreType properties defined by the JSSE.

  • file-store - Provider that loads a the key store from a file.

none, system-property, file-store

system-property

path

Key store type. See the KeyStore section in the https://docs.oracle.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/security/StandardNames.html#KeyStore[Java Cryptography Architecture Standard Algorithm Name Documentation] for information about standard keystore types.

string

string

TLS trust managers provider type.

Available providers:

  • trust-all - Use this provider to disable the validation of servers certificates and therefor turst all server certificates.

  • system-property - Provider checks the standard javax.net.ssl.keyStore, javax.net.ssl.keyStorePassword, and javax.net.ssl.keyStoreType properties defined by the JSSE.

  • file-store - Provider that loads a the key store from a file.

trust-all, system-property, file-store

system-property

path

Key store type. See the KeyStore section in the https://docs.oracle.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/security/StandardNames.html#KeyStore[Java Cryptography Architecture Standard Algorithm Name Documentation] for information about standard keystore types.

string

string

Apache HTTP client specific configurations

Type

Default

The amount of time to wait when acquiring a connection from the pool before giving up and timing out.

Duration

10S

The maximum amount of time that a connection should be allowed to remain open while idle.

Duration

60S

The maximum amount of time that a connection should be allowed to remain open, regardless of usage frequency.

Duration

The maximum number of connections allowed in the connection pool. Each built HTTP client has its own private connection pool.

int

50

Whether the client should send an HTTP expect-continue handshake before each request.

boolean

true

Whether the idle connections in the connection pool should be closed asynchronously. When enabled, connections left idling for longer than quarkus..sync-client.connection-max-idle-time will be closed. This will not close connections currently in use.

boolean

true

boolean

false

The endpoint of the proxy server that the SDK should connect through. Currently, the endpoint is limited to a host and port. Any other URI components will result in an exception being raised.

URI

The username to use when connecting through a proxy.

string

The password to use when connecting through a proxy.

string

For NTLM proxies - the Windows domain name to use when authenticating with the proxy.

string

For NTLM proxies - the Windows workstation name to use when authenticating with the proxy.

string

Whether to attempt to authenticate preemptively against the proxy server using basic authentication.

boolean

The hosts that the client is allowed to access without going through the proxy.

list of string

Netty HTTP transport configurations

Type

Default

The maximum number of allowed concurrent requests. For HTTP/1.1 this is the same as max connections. For HTTP/2 the number of connections that will be used depends on the max streams allowed per connection.

int

50

The maximum number of pending acquires allowed. Once this exceeds, acquire tries will be failed.

int

10000

The amount of time to wait for a read on a socket before an exception is thrown. Specify 0 to disable.

Duration

30S

The amount of time to wait for a write on a socket before an exception is thrown. Specify 0 to disable.

Duration

30S

The amount of time to wait when initially establishing a connection before giving up and timing out.

Duration

10S

The amount of time to wait when acquiring a connection from the pool before giving up and timing out.

Duration

2S

The maximum amount of time that a connection should be allowed to remain open, regardless of usage frequency.

Duration

The maximum amount of time that a connection should be allowed to remain open while idle. Currently has no effect if quarkus..async-client.use-idle-connection-reaper is false.

Duration

60S

Whether the idle connections in the connection pool should be closed. When enabled, connections left idling for longer than quarkus..async-client.connection-max-idle-time will be closed. This will not close connections currently in use.

boolean

true

The HTTP protocol to use.

http1-1, http2

http1-1

The SSL Provider to be used in the Netty client. Default is OPENSSL if available, JDK otherwise.

jdk, openssl, openssl-refcnt

The maximum number of concurrent streams for an HTTP/2 connection. This setting is only respected when the HTTP/2 protocol is used.

long

4294967295

The initial window size for an HTTP/2 stream. This setting is only respected when the HTTP/2 protocol is used.

int

1048576

Sets the period that the Netty client will send PING frames to the remote endpoint to check the health of the connection. To disable this feature, set a duration of 0. This setting is only respected when the HTTP/2 protocol is used.

Duration

5

boolean

false

The endpoint of the proxy server that the SDK should connect through. Currently, the endpoint is limited to a host and port. Any other URI components will result in an exception being raised.

URI

The hosts that the client is allowed to access without going through the proxy.

list of string

TLS key managers provider type.

Available providers:

  • none - Use this provider if you don’t want the client to present any certificates to the remote TLS host.

  • system-property - Provider checks the standard javax.net.ssl.keyStore, javax.net.ssl.keyStorePassword, and javax.net.ssl.keyStoreType properties defined by the JSSE.

  • file-store - Provider that loads a the key store from a file.

none, system-property, file-store

system-property

path

Key store type. See the KeyStore section in the https://docs.oracle.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/security/StandardNames.html#KeyStore[Java Cryptography Architecture Standard Algorithm Name Documentation] for information about standard keystore types.

string

string

TLS trust managers provider type.

Available providers:

  • trust-all - Use this provider to disable the validation of servers certificates and therefor turst all server certificates.

  • system-property - Provider checks the standard javax.net.ssl.keyStore, javax.net.ssl.keyStorePassword, and javax.net.ssl.keyStoreType properties defined by the JSSE.

  • file-store - Provider that loads a the key store from a file.

trust-all, system-property, file-store

system-property

path

Key store type. See the KeyStore section in the https://docs.oracle.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/security/StandardNames.html#KeyStore[Java Cryptography Architecture Standard Algorithm Name Documentation] for information about standard keystore types.

string

string

Enable the custom configuration of the Netty event loop group.

boolean

false

Number of threads to use for the event loop group. If not set, the default Netty thread count is used (which is double the number of available processors unless the io.netty.eventLoopThreads system property is set.

int

The thread name prefix for threads created by this thread factory used by event loop group. The prefix will be appended with a number unique to the thread factory and a number unique to the thread. If not specified it defaults to aws-java-sdk-NettyEventLoop

string

About the Duration format

The format for durations uses the standard java.time.Duration format. You can learn more about it in the Duration#parse() javadoc.

You can also provide duration values starting with a number. In this case, if the value consists only of a number, the converter treats the value as seconds. Otherwise, PT is implicitly prepended to the value to obtain a standard java.time.Duration format.

About the MemorySize format

A size configuration option recognises string in this format (shown as a regular expression): [0-9]+[KkMmGgTtPpEeZzYy]?. If no suffix is given, assume bytes.