Quarkus - Amazon Lambda with RESTEasy, Undertow, or Vert.x Web

With Quarkus you can deploy your favorite Java HTTP frameworks as Amazon Lambda’s using either the AWS Gateway HTTP API or AWS Gateway REST API. This means that you can deploy your microservices written with RESTEasy (JAX-RS), Undertow (servlet), Vert.x Web, Funqy HTTP or any other Quarkus HTTP framework as an AWS Lambda.

You can deploy your Lambda as a pure Java jar, or you can compile your project to a native image and deploy that for a smaller memory footprint and startup time. Our integration also generates SAM deployment files that can be consumed by Amazon’s SAM framework.

Quarkus has a different extension for each Gateway API. The HTTP Gateway API is implemented within the quarkus-amazon-lambda-http extension. The REST Gateway API is implemented within the quarkus-amazon-lambda-rest extension. If you are confused on which Gateway product to use, Amazon has a great guide to help you navigate this decision.

This technology is considered preview.

In preview, backward compatibility and presence in the ecosystem is not guaranteed. Specific improvements might require to change configuration or APIs and plans to become stable are under way. Feedback is welcome on our mailing list or as issues in our GitHub issue tracker.

For a full list of possible extension statuses, check our FAQ entry.

Prerequisites

To complete this guide, you need:

Getting Started

This guide walks you through generating an example Java project via a maven archetype. Later on it walks through the structure of the project so you can adapt any existing projects you have to use Amazon Lambda.

Installing AWS bits

Installing all the AWS bits is probably the most difficult thing about this guide. Make sure that you follow all the steps for installing AWS SAM CLI.

Creating the Maven Deployment Project

Create the Quarkus AWS Lambda maven project using our Maven Archetype.

If you want to use the AWS Gateway HTTP API, generate your project with this script:

mvn archetype:generate \
       -DarchetypeGroupId=io.quarkus \
       -DarchetypeArtifactId=quarkus-amazon-lambda-http-archetype \
       -DarchetypeVersion=2.1.1.Final

If you want to use the AWS Gateway REST API, generate your project with this script:

mvn archetype:generate \
       -DarchetypeGroupId=io.quarkus \
       -DarchetypeArtifactId=quarkus-amazon-lambda-rest-archetype \
       -DarchetypeVersion=2.1.1.Final

Build and Deploy

Build the project using maven.

./mvnw clean install

This will compile the code and run the unit tests included within the generated project. Unit testing is the same as any other Java project and does not require running on Amazon. Quarkus dev-mode is also available with this extension.

If you want to build for native too, make sure you have GraalVM installed correctly and just add a native property to the build

./mvnw clean install -Dnative
If you are building on a non-Linux system, you will need to also pass in a property instructing quarkus to use a docker build as Amazon Lambda requires linux binaries. You can do this by passing this property to your Maven build: -Dnative-image.docker-build=true, or for Gradle: --docker-build=true. This requires you to have docker installed locally, however.
./mvnw clean install -Dnative -Dnative-image.docker-build=true

Extra Build Generated Files

After you run the build, there are a few extra files generated by the quarkus lambda extension you are using. These files are in the the build directory: target/ for maven, build/ for gradle.

  • function.zip - lambda deployment file

  • sam.jvm.yaml - sam cli deployment script

  • sam.native.yaml - sam cli deployment script for native

Simulate Amazon Lambda Deployment

The AWS SAM CLI allows you to run your lambda’s locally on your laptop in a simulated Lambda environment. This requires docker to be installed (see their install docs). After you have built your maven project, execute this command

sam local start-api --template target/sam.jvm.yaml

This will start a docker container that mimics Amazon’s Lambda’s deployment environment. Once the environment is started you can invoke the example lambda in your browser by going to

In the console you’ll see startup messages from the lambda. This particular deployment starts a JVM and loads your lambda as pure Java.

Deploy to AWS

sam deploy -t target/sam.jvm.yaml -g

Answer all the questions and your lambda will be deployed and the necessary hooks to the API Gateway will be set up. If everything deploys successfully, the root URL of your microservice will be output to the console. Something like this:

Key                 LambdaHttpApi
Description         URL for application
Value               https://234asdf234as.execute-api.us-east-1.amazonaws.com/

The Value attribute is the root URL for your lambda. Copy it to your browser and add hello at the end.

Responses for binary types will be automatically encoded with base64. This is different than the behavior using quarkus:dev which will return the raw bytes. Amazon’s API has additional restrictions requiring the base64 encoding. In general, client code will automatically handle this encoding but in certain custom situations, you should be aware you may need to manually manage that encoding.

Deploying a native executable

To deploy a native executable, you must build it with Graal.

./mvnw clean install -Dnative

You can then test the executable locally with sam local

sam local start-api --template target/sam.native.yaml

To deploy to AWS Lambda:

sam deploy -t target/sam.native.yaml -g

Examine the POM

There is nothing special about the POM other than the inclusion of the quarkus-amazon-lambda-http extension (if you are deploying an AWS Gateway HTTP API) or the quarkus-amazon-lambda-rest extension (if you are deploy an AWS Gateway REST API). These extensions automatically generate everything you might need for your lambda deployment.

Also, at least in the generated maven archetype pom.xml, the quarkus-resteasy, quarkus-vertx-web, and quarkus-undertow dependencies are all optional. Pick which http framework(s) you want to use (JAX-RS, Vertx Web, and/or Servlet) and remove the other dependencies to shrink your deployment.

Examine sam.yaml

The sam.yaml syntax is beyond the scope of this document. There’s a couple of things that must be highlighted just in case you are going to craft your own custom sam.yaml deployment files.

The first thing to note is that for pure Java lambda deployments require a specific handler class. Do not change the Lambda handler name.

     Properties:
        Handler: io.quarkus.amazon.lambda.runtime.QuarkusStreamHandler::handleRequest
        Runtime: java11

This handler is a bridge between the lambda runtime and the Quarkus HTTP framework you are using (JAX-RS, Servlet, etc.)

If you want to go native, there’s an environment variable that must be set for native GraalVM deployments. If you look at sam.native.yaml you’ll see this:

        Environment:
          Variables:
            DISABLE_SIGNAL_HANDLERS: true

This environment variable resolves some incompatibilities between Quarkus and the Amazon Lambda Custom Runtime environment.

Finally, there is one specific thing for AWS Gateway REST API deployments. That API assumes that HTTP response bodies are text unless you explicitly tell it which media types are binary through configuration. To make things easier, the Quarkus extension forces a binary (base 64) encoding of all HTTP response messages and the sam.yaml file must configure the API Gateway to assume all media types are binary:

  Globals:
    Api:
      EndpointConfiguration: REGIONAL
      BinaryMediaTypes:
        - "*/*"

Injectable AWS Context Variables

If you are using Resteasy and JAX-RS, you can inject various AWS Context variables into your JAX-RS resource classes using the JAX-RS @Context annotation.

For the AWS HTTP API you can inject the AWS variables com.amazonaws.services.lambda.runtime.Context and com.amazonaws.services.lambda.runtime.events.APIGatewayV2HTTPEvent. Here is an example:

import javax.ws.rs.core.Context;
import com.amazonaws.services.lambda.runtime.events.APIGatewayV2HTTPEvent;


@Path("/myresource")
public class MyResource {
    @GET
    public String ctx(@Context com.amazonaws.services.lambda.runtime.Context ctx) { }

    @GET
    public String event(@Context APIGatewayV2HTTPEvent event) { }

    @GET
    public String requestContext(@Context APIGatewayV2HTTPEvent.RequestContext req) { }


}

For the AWS REST API you can inject the AWS variables com.amazonaws.services.lambda.runtime.Context and io.quarkus.amazon.lambda.http.model.AwsProxyRequestContext. Here is an example:

import javax.ws.rs.core.Context;
import io.quarkus.amazon.lambda.http.model.AwsProxyRequestContext;
import io.quarkus.amazon.lambda.http.model.AwsProxyRequest;


@Path("/myresource")
public class MyResource {
    @GET
    public String ctx(@Context com.amazonaws.services.lambda.runtime.Context ctx) { }

    @GET
    public String reqContext(@Context AwsProxyRequestContext req) { }

    @GET
    public String req(@Context AwsProxyRequest req) { }

}

Tracing with AWS XRay and GraalVM

If you are building native images, and want to use AWS X-Ray Tracing with your lambda you will need to include quarkus-amazon-lambda-xray as a dependency in your pom. The AWS X-Ray library is not fully compatible with GraalVM so we had to do some integration work to make this work.

Security Integration

When you invoke an HTTP request on the API Gateway, the Gateway turns that HTTP request into a JSON event document that is forwarded to a Quarkus Lambda. The Quarkus Lambda parses this json and converts in into an internal representation of an HTTP request that can be consumed by any HTTP framework Quarkus supports (JAX-RS, servlet, Vert.x Web).

API Gateway supports many different ways to securely invoke on your HTTP endpoints that are backed by Lambda and Quarkus. If you enable it, Quarkus will automatically parse relevant parts of the event json document and look for security based metadata and register a java.security.Principal internally that can be looked up in JAX-RS by injecting a javax.ws.rs.core.SecurityContext, via HttpServletRequest.getUserPrincipal() in servlet, and RouteContext.user() in Vert.x Web. If you want more security information, the Principal object can be typecast to a class that will give you more information.

To enable this security feature, add this to your application.properties file:

quarkus.lambda-http.enable-security=true

Here’s how its mapped:

Table 1. HTTP quarkus-amazon-lambda-http
Auth Type Principal Class Json path of Principal Name

Cognito JWT

io.quarkus.amazon.lambda.http.CognitoPrincipal

requestContext.authorizer.jwt.claims.cognito:username

IAM

io.quarkus.amazon.lambda.http.IAMPrincipal

requestContext.authorizer.iam.userId

Custom Lambda

io.quarkus.amazon.lambda.http.CustomPrincipal

requestContext.authorizer.lambda.principalId

Table 2. REST quarkus-amazon-lambda-rest
Auth Type Principal Class Json path of Principal Name

Cognito

io.quarkus.amazon.lambda.http.CognitoPrincipal

requestContext.authorizer.claims.cognito:username

IAM

io.quarkus.amazon.lambda.http.IAMPrincipal

requestContext.identity.user

Custom Lambda

io.quarkus.amazon.lambda.http.CustomPrincipal

requestContext.authorizer.principalId

Custom Security Integration

The default support for AWS security only maps the principal name to Quarkus security APIs and does nothing to map claims or roles or permissions. You have can full control how security metadata in the lambda HTTP event is mapped to Quarkus security APIs using implementations of the io.quarkus.amazon.lambda.http.LambdaIdentityProvider interface. By implementing this interface, you can do things like define role mappings for your principal or publish additional attributes provided by IAM or Cognito or your Custom Lambda security integration.

HTTP quarkus-amazon-lambda-http
package io.quarkus.amazon.lambda.http;

/**
 * Helper interface that removes some boilerplate for creating
 * an IdentityProvider that processes APIGatewayV2HTTPEvent
 */
public interface LambdaIdentityProvider extends IdentityProvider<LambdaAuthenticationRequest> {
    @Override
    default public Class<LambdaAuthenticationRequest> getRequestType() {
        return LambdaAuthenticationRequest.class;
    }

    @Override
    default Uni<SecurityIdentity> authenticate(LambdaAuthenticationRequest request, AuthenticationRequestContext context) {
        APIGatewayV2HTTPEvent event = request.getEvent();
        SecurityIdentity identity = authenticate(event);
        if (identity == null) {
            return Uni.createFrom().optional(Optional.empty());
        }
        return Uni.createFrom().item(identity);
    }

    /**
     * You must override this method unless you directly override
     * IdentityProvider.authenticate
     *
     * @param event
     * @return
     */
    default SecurityIdentity authenticate(APIGatewayV2HTTPEvent event) {
        throw new IllegalStateException("You must override this method or IdentityProvider.authenticate");
    }
}

For HTTP, the important method to override is LambdaIdentityProvider.authenticate(APIGatewayV2HTTPEvent event). From this you will allocate a SecurityIdentity based on how you want to map security data from APIGatewayV2HTTPEvent

REST quarkus-amazon-lambda-rest
package io.quarkus.amazon.lambda.http;

import java.util.Optional;

import com.amazonaws.services.lambda.runtime.events.APIGatewayV2HTTPEvent;

import io.quarkus.amazon.lambda.http.model.AwsProxyRequest;
import io.quarkus.security.identity.AuthenticationRequestContext;
import io.quarkus.security.identity.IdentityProvider;
import io.quarkus.security.identity.SecurityIdentity;
import io.smallrye.mutiny.Uni;

/**
 * Helper interface that removes some boilerplate for creating
 * an IdentityProvider that processes APIGatewayV2HTTPEvent
 */
public interface LambdaIdentityProvider extends IdentityProvider<LambdaAuthenticationRequest> {
...

    /**
     * You must override this method unless you directly override
     * IdentityProvider.authenticate
     *
     * @param event
     * @return
     */
    default SecurityIdentity authenticate(AwsProxyRequest event) {
        throw new IllegalStateException("You must override this method or IdentityProvider.authenticate");
    }
}

For REST, the important method to override is LambdaIdentityProvider.authenticate(AwsProxyRequest event). From this you will allocate a SecurityIdentity based on how you want to map security data from AwsProxyRequest.

Your implemented provider must be a CDI bean. Here’s an example:

package org.acme;

import java.security.Principal;

import javax.enterprise.context.ApplicationScoped;

import com.amazonaws.services.lambda.runtime.events.APIGatewayV2HTTPEvent;

import io.quarkus.amazon.lambda.http.LambdaIdentityProvider;
import io.quarkus.security.identity.SecurityIdentity;
import io.quarkus.security.runtime.QuarkusPrincipal;
import io.quarkus.security.runtime.QuarkusSecurityIdentity;

@ApplicationScoped
public class CustomSecurityProvider implements LambdaIdentityProvider {
    @Override
    public SecurityIdentity authenticate(APIGatewayV2HTTPEvent event) {
        if (event.getHeaders() == null || !event.getHeaders().containsKey("x-user"))
            return null;
        Principal principal = new QuarkusPrincipal(event.getHeaders().get("x-user"));
        QuarkusSecurityIdentity.Builder builder = QuarkusSecurityIdentity.builder();
        builder.setPrincipal(principal);
        return builder.build();
    }
}

Here’s the same example, but with the AWS Gateway REST API:

package org.acme;

import java.security.Principal;

import javax.enterprise.context.ApplicationScoped;

import io.quarkus.amazon.lambda.http.model.AwsProxyRequest;

import io.quarkus.amazon.lambda.http.LambdaIdentityProvider;
import io.quarkus.security.identity.SecurityIdentity;
import io.quarkus.security.runtime.QuarkusPrincipal;
import io.quarkus.security.runtime.QuarkusSecurityIdentity;

@ApplicationScoped
public class CustomSecurityProvider implements LambdaIdentityProvider {
    @Override
    public SecurityIdentity authenticate(AwsProxyRequest event) {
        if (event.getMultiValueHeaders() == null || !event.getMultiValueHeaders().containsKey("x-user"))
            return null;
        Principal principal = new QuarkusPrincipal(event.getMultiValueHeaders().getFirst("x-user"));
        QuarkusSecurityIdentity.Builder builder = QuarkusSecurityIdentity.builder();
        builder.setPrincipal(principal);
        return builder.build();
    }
}

Quarkus should automatically discover this implementation and use it instead of the default implementation discussed earlier.

Simple SAM Local Principal

If you are testing your application with sam local you can hardcode a principal name to use when your application runs by setting the QUARKUS_AWS_LAMBDA_FORCE_USER_NAME environment variable